Chapter 17 - Special Senses Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 17 - Special Senses Deck (11):
1

General senses

somatic & visceral 

2

Special senses 

smell, taste, vision, hearing & equilibrium 

3

Olfaction

sense of smell

olfactory epithelium consists of olfactory receptors, supporting & basal cells

 

 

4

Olfaction

(3) cells in olfactory epithelium 

1) olfactory receptor - bipolar neuron with cilia (olfactory hairs) that respond to odorants

2) supporting cells-  support & nourishment

3) basal cells - replace olfactory receptors

5

Physiology of Olfaction

Odorant binds to receptor of olfactory hair→ G-protein activation→ 
activation of adenylate cyclase→ production of cAMP→ opening of Na+ channels→ inflow of Na+ →generator potential→ nerve impulse through olfactory nerves → bulbs →tract →primary olfactory area 

6

Gustation 

taste buds -found in papillae - (vallate, fungiform, foliate) 

 made up of (3) cells: supporting, basal cells, gustatory receptor cells (50 per taste bud) 

each gustatory receptor cell has a gustatory hair that projects through taste pore

 

7

Physiology of gustation

5 types of taste: sour, sweet, bitter, salty & umami

Tastant dissolves in saliva → PM of gustatory hair→ receptor potentialnerve impulse via cranial nerves VII, IX & X→ medulla→ thalamusprimary gustatory area of cerebral cortex. 

 

8

 Lacrimal Apparatus of Eye

 

group of structures that produces & drains lacrimal fluid (tears) 

9

Lacrimal Apparatus

production & pathway of tears

Tears from the lacrimal apparatus- lacrimal glandsexcretory lacrimal ducts→ lacrimal puncta→ lacrimal canalsnasolacrimal sac→ nasolacrimal duct

10

Wall of eyeball

(3) layers

1) fibrous tunic 

2) vascular tunic

retina 

11

(3) layers of wall of eyeball

 

1) fibrous tunic 

2) vascular tunic (uvea) 

retina 

1) OUTER 

sclera - white of eye

cornea - transparent coat covering iris

2) choroid - lines internal surface of sclera

becomes ciliary body consists of ciliary processes ciliary muscle 

Iris 

3) Optic Disk - blind spot, where optic (II) nerve exits

Macula lutea - fovea centralis: area of highest visual acuity