Chapter 28 - Reproductive System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 28 - Reproductive System Deck (84):
1

gametes

sex cells

2

gametes (sex cells) combine their genes to form ?

fertilized egg - zygote 

3

Primary Sex Organs 

produce gametes (testes & ovaries) 

4

Secondary Sex Organs

male - ducts, glands, penis delivers sperm cells

female - uterine tubes, uterus & vagina recieve sperm & nourish developing fetus 

5

secondary sex characteristics

develop at puberty to attract a mate 

6

Chromosomes 

our cells contain 23 pairs of chromosomes

22 pairs of autosomes - non-sex chromosomes

1 pair of sex chromosomes 

XY males - XX females

7

sex of child determined by?

type of sperm that fertilizes mother's eff

8

Gonads begin to develop at __ weeks 

(2) sets of ducts

6 weeks

mesonephric - develop into male reproductive system

paramesonephric - develop into female reproductive tract

9

SRY gene

in males, codes for?

sex-determining region of Y gene

in males, codes for protein that causes developement of testes → secrete testosterone → mullerian-inhibiting factor → degenerates paramesonephric ducts

10

Female development occurs in absence of?

SRY 

11

External genitals of male & female embryos remain undifferentiated until about ___ weeks

both have same (3) structures

1) urogenital folds

2) genital tubercle

3) labitoscrotal swelling 

12

 

 

1) urogenital folds

2) genital tubercle

3) labitoscrotal swelling 

1) MALE - enclose urethra 

FEMALE - form labia minora

2) M: glans of penis

F: clitoris

3) scrotum or labia majora

13

Gonads of male - testes 

produce sperm & secrete hormones

14

System of ducts in male testes

 

transport & store sperm. assist in their maturation, convey them to exterior 

15

Sperm:

Seminiferous tubules → ?...

straight tubules → rete testis → efferent ducts in epididymis → ductus epididymis 

16

Function of Epididymis

sperm maturation & storage 

17

From epididymis, sperm travels to...

Vas deferens (ductus deferens)  (part of spermatic cord) → ejaculatory ducts → urethra  

18

Accessory sex glands (3) 

add secretions to semen 

seminal vesicles, prostate & bulbourethral glands

19

Accessory sex glands 

- seminal vesicles

help neutralize acidic environment of male urethra & female reproductive tract by secreting alkaline fluid 

- fructose for ATP production 

60% of sperm volume

20

Accessory sex glands 

- Prostate

slightly acidic fluid 

for ATP production, proteolytic enzymes to break down clotting (eventually) from seminal vesicle

antibiotic to destroy bacteria 

21

Accessory sex glands 

bulbourethral glands

alkaline fluid 

protects sperm by neutralizing acids from urine in urethra 

secrete mucus - lubricates end of penis & urethra lining, 

22

Scrotum 

supporting structure for testes 

23

raphe of scrotum

external median ridge 

24

1) Scrotal septum

 

2) Cremaster muscle

1) internally divides scrotum into two sacs, each containing a single testis 

made up of subQ layer & muscle tissue - dartos muscle (smooth muscle) 

2) series of skeletal muscle bands associated with each testis in scrotum

25

Testes 

1) tunica vaginalis

2) tunica albuginea

1) serous membrane partially covering testes 

2) internal - white fibrous capsule

extends inward & divides testis into lobules which contain seminiferous tubules that produce sperm

26

(2) types of cells in seminiferous tubules 

1) spermatogenic cells - sperm-forming cells

2) sertoli cells- functions in supporting spermatogenesis

27

Spermatagonia ( __ ___) develop from __ ___ cells that arise in ___ __ and enter testes in __ week of developement

(sperm cells) 

primordial germ cells

yolk sac

5th

28

toward lumen of seminiferous tubule are layers of progressively more mature cells. 

In order of advancing maturity: 

 

primary spermatocytes → 2ndary spermatocytes →spermatids →sperm cells

29

Sertoli cells

embedded among spermatogenic cells

extend from basement membrane to lumen 

- nourish, phagocytize xs cytoplasm, control movements, & release of sperm into lumen 

produce fluid for sperm transport

secrete inhibin & regulate effects of testosterone & FSH 

30

Leydig (interstitial) cells

found in spaces between seminiferous tubules

secrete testosterone

31

Sperm

1) Head

2) Tail 

1) nucleus with 23 chromosomes 

acrosome - vesicle filled with oocyte penetrating enzyme (for fertilization)

2) neck - contains centrioles forming microtubules that comprise remainder of tail 

middle piece - contains mitochondria 

principal piece - longest portion of tail 

end piece - terminal, tapering portion of tail 

32

Spermatic cord

ascends out of scrotum 

includes ductus deferens

33

Ejaculatory ducts terminate in ___

prostatic urethra

34

Urethra 

subdivided into (3)?

1) prostatic

2) membranous

3) spongy (penile) 

 

ends at external urethral orifice

35

Penis 

contains urethra

passageway for ejaculation of semen & excretion of urine

Body of Penis

Glans Penis

Prepuce (foreskin) 

Root 

36

Body of penis

3 cylindrical masses of tissue with erectile tissue

 

37

Glans penis

terminal opening is external urethral orifice 

 

38

Prepuce 

aka foreskin

covers glans in uncircumsized men

39

Root of penis

attached proximal portion 

consists of bulb crura

40

Female reproductive system 

gonads - ovaries 

uterine (fallopian) tubes (oviducts) 

uterus

vagina

external organs - vulva or pudendum

mammary glands

41

Ovaries 

analagous to testes

produce gametes - 2ndary oocytes that develop into mature ova (eggs) after fertilization 

42

Series of ligament hold ovaries into place

(3) 

1) broad ligament - part of parietal peritoneum

2) ovarian ligament - anchors ovaries to uterus

3) suspensory ligament - attaches ovaries to pelvic wall

43

Histology of ovary 

- consists of? (7) 

1) germinal epithelium

2) tunica albuginea

3) ovarian cortex

4) ovarian medulla

5) ovarian follicles

6) mature (graafian) follicles

7) corpus luteum 

44

1) germinal epithelium

2) tunica albuginea

3) ovarian cortex

4) ovarian medulla

5) ovarian follicles

6) mature (graafian) follicles

7) corpus luteum 

1) covers ovary surface

2) whitish capsule of dense irregular CT

3) ovarian follicles surrounded by stromal cells 

4) contains blood vessels, lymphatic vessels & nerves

5) in cortex, consists of oocytes in various stages of development

surrounding cells nourish developing oocyte (follicular -> granulosa cells) & secrete estrogens as follicle grows 

6) large, fluid-filled, ready to expel 2ndary oocyte - ovulation

7) contains remnants of mature follicle after ovulation - produces progesterone, estrogens, relaxin, inhibin until it degenerates into fibrous scar tissue (corpus albicans

 

45

Uterine (fallopian tubes) or oviduct

extend laterally from uterus 

provide route for sperm to reach ovum 

transport 2ndary oocytes & fertilized ova from ovaries to uterus 

 

46

parts of the Uterine (fallopian) tube 

Infundibulum 

fimbrae

ampulla

isthmus 

47

Parts of Uterine (fallopian) Tube

Infundibulum 

Fimbrae

Ampulla 

Isthmus

funnel shaped portion, infundibulum close to ovary & open to pelvic cavity

- ends in finger-like fimbrae, one of which is attached to lateral end of ovary

ampulla - widest longest portion 

isthmus - more medial, narrow, thick-walled portion that joins uterus 

48

Histology of Uterine tubes

(3) layers

 

1) mucosa

2) muscularis

3) serosa

49

Histology of Uterine tubes

(3) layers

1) mucosa

2) muscularis

3) serosa

1) epithelium & lamina propria, ciliary conveyer belts help move fertilized ovum toward uterus & peg cells that nourish ovum

2) inner, thick, circular smooth muscle ring & outer, thin, longitudinal smooth muscle region, also help move ovum toward uterus

3) serous membrane

50

Uterus 

anatomical subdivisions (3) 

1) fundus 

2) body

3) cervix 

isthmus - constricted region b/w uterus body & cervix

51

Uterine cavity

interior of body of uterus

52

cervical canal

interior of cervix

53

cervical canal opens into uterine cavity at __ ___ and into vagina at __ ___ 

cervical canal opens into uterine cavity at internal os and into vagina at external os

54

Anteflexion of uterus

normally, body of uterus project anteriorly & superiorly over urinary bladder (called anteflexion

55

Several ligaments maintain position of uterus (4) 

1) broad 

2) uterosacral - connect to sacrum

3) cardinal (lateral cervical) 

4) round 

56

Histology of Uterus

(3) layers 

1) perimetrium 

2) myometrium

3) endometrium 

57

Histology of Uterus

(3) layers

1) perimetrium 

2) myometrium

3) endometrium 

1) part of visceral peritoneum 

- broad ligament (laterally), vesicouterine pouch (anteriorly), rectouterine pouch (posteriorly) 

2) middle layer - 3 layers of smooth muscle 

labor → oxytocin from posterior pituitary help expel fetus 

3) two layers -stratum basalis (basal layer) - permanent, gives rise to new stratum functionalis (functional layer) lines uterine cavity & sloughs off during menstration 

58

Blood supply to Uterus 

internal iliac a. → uterine a. → arcuate a. → radial a. → straight (stratum basalis) + spiral arterioles (stratum functionalis) → uterine v. → internal iliac v. 

59

Cervical mucus

alkaline secretion produced by secretory cells of mucosa that is more hospitable to sperm near ovulation but otherwise impedes sperm at other times. 

 

function in capacitation - functional changes in sperm before they are able to fertlize 2ndary oocyte

60

Vagina 

fibromuscular canal extending from exterior of body to uterine cervix 

acidic environment

61

Histology of Vagina

(2) layers

1) muscularis

2) adventitia

62

Histology of Vagina

1) muscularis

2) adventitia

1) outer circular layer, inner longitudinal layer of smooth muscle 

2) superficial layer of areolar CT that anchors vagina to adjacent organs 

63

Hymen of Vagina

thin fold of vascularized mucous membrane forming border around & partially closing vaginal orifice 

64

Vulva (pudendum) 

external genitals of female

65

components of Vulva (5) 

1) mons pubis 

2) labia majora

3) labia minora 

4) clitoris 

5) vestibule

6) bulb of vestibule

66

Components of Vulva

1) mons pubis 

2) labia majora

3) labia minora 

4) clitoris 

5) vestibule

6) bulb of vestible

1) adipose tissue covered by skin & pubic hair

2) homologous to scrotum  - oil & sweat glands

3) homologous to spongy (penile) urethra - only few sweat but many oil glands

4) prepuce & glans clitoris - (glans penis) 

5) betwen labia minora - (membranous urethra) 

6) (corpus spongiosum & bulb of penis) 

67

Perineum 

contains?

diamond-shaped area medial to thighs & butt of males & females 

contains external genitalia & anus

68

Breast/Mammary glands

nipple has openings of lactiferous ducts 

areola - pigmented area

mammary gland - modified sudoriferous (sweat) glands that produce milk

 

lobes divided into lobules which are composed alveoli (milk-secreting glands) 

69

When milk is being produced it passes from ___ to...

alveoli → secondary tubules → mammary ducts → lactiferous sinuses → lactiferous duct (lobe → exterior) 

70

Ovarian cycle

series of events in ovaries that occur during & after maturation of an oocyte

71

Uterine (menstrual) cycle

concurrent series of changes in endometrium of uterus to prepare for arrival of fertilized ovum that will develop there after birth

72

Female reproductive cycle encompasses...

ovarian & uterine cycles, hormonal changes that regulate them & related cyclical changes in breasts & cervix

73

What controls the ovarian & uterine cycles?

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secreted by hypothalamus 

74

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulates?

release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) from anterior pituitary. 

75

1) Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) 

 2) Luteinizing hormone (LH) 

stimulate?

1) initiates follicular growth

2) stimulates further development of ovarian follicles 

BOTH stimulate ovarian follicles to secrete estrogens. 

76

Functions of Estrogens 

secreted by?

promote development & maintence of female reproductive structures & sex characteristics & breasts

 

ovarian follicles 

77

1) GnRH

2) FSH & LH 

3) estrogens 

4) progesterone 

5) relaxin 

6) inhibin 

produced by? function?

1) hypothalamus - controls ovarian & uterine cycles

2) anterior pituitary - follicular growth & further development, stimulate ovarian follicles to secrete estrogens

3) ovarian follicles - develop/maintain female repro. structures & sex characteristics

4) cells of corpus luteum - prep/maintain endometrium for implantation & mammary glands for milk secretion, inhibit GnRH + LH

5) corpus luteum - inhibits myometrium contractions (relax uterus) 

6) granulosa cells of growing follicles & corpus luteum - inhibits FSH secretion & LH

78

Phases of Female Reproductive Cycle (4) 

1) menstrual 

2) preovulatory

3) ovulation

4) postovulatory 

79

1) menstrual phase 

 

first 5 days 

IN OVARIES: FSH → primordial f. → 1º f. →2º f.

IN UTERUS:  ↓ progesterone & estrogens  → ↑ prostaglandins → uterine spiral arteries constrict → endometrium shedding 

 

80

 

 

2) preovulatory phase

 

days 6-13 in 28 day cycle

UTERINE CYCLE - proliferative phase (endometrium is proliferating)

 

IN OVARIES: 2 f. secrete estrogens & inhibin → dominant follicle →  ↓ FSH → mature (graafian) follicle 

IN UTERUS: estrogens stimulate repair of endometrium 

 

 

81

3) ovulation

 

day 14

high estrogens levels at end of preov. phase exert positive feedback effect on cells that secrete LH & GnRH 

↑ estrogens → ↑ GnRH + ↑ LH 

 ↑ GnRH → ↑FSH 

↑ LH → rupture of mature (graafian) follicle & release of 2ndary oocyte into pelvic cavity 


 

82

Follicular phase 

with reference to ovarian cycle, 

menstrual + preovulatory phase

because ovarian follicles are growing & developing

83

4) postovulatory phase 

lasts 14 days (day 15-28) 

IN ONE OVARY: luteal phase (ovarian cycle) 

blood clot, LH → theca interna + granulosa → corpus luteum cells

not fertilized: corpus luteum → corpus albicans

fertilized: 2ndary oocyte divides & corpus luteum persists

IN UTERUS: thickening of endometrium, 

Secretory phase (uterine cycle) - secretory action of endometrial glands

84

Hormone cycle:

hierarchy of control?

 

hypothalamus  → pituitary → ovaries → uterus