Chapter 28 - Reproductive System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 28 - Reproductive System Deck (84)
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1

gametes

sex cells

2

gametes (sex cells) combine their genes to form ?

fertilized egg - zygote 

3

Primary Sex Organs 

produce gametes (testes & ovaries) 

4

Secondary Sex Organs

male - ducts, glands, penis delivers sperm cells

female - uterine tubes, uterus & vagina recieve sperm & nourish developing fetus 

5

secondary sex characteristics

develop at puberty to attract a mate 

6

Chromosomes 

our cells contain 23 pairs of chromosomes

22 pairs of autosomes - non-sex chromosomes

1 pair of sex chromosomes 

XY males - XX females

7

sex of child determined by?

type of sperm that fertilizes mother's eff

8

Gonads begin to develop at __ weeks 

(2) sets of ducts

6 weeks

mesonephric - develop into male reproductive system

paramesonephric - develop into female reproductive tract

9

SRY gene

in males, codes for?

sex-determining region of Y gene

in males, codes for protein that causes developement of testes → secrete testosterone → mullerian-inhibiting factor → degenerates paramesonephric ducts

10

Female development occurs in absence of?

SRY 

11

External genitals of male & female embryos remain undifferentiated until about ___ weeks

both have same (3) structures

1) urogenital folds

2) genital tubercle

3) labitoscrotal swelling 

12

 

 

1) urogenital folds

2) genital tubercle

3) labitoscrotal swelling 

1) MALE - enclose urethra 

FEMALE - form labia minora

2) M: glans of penis

F: clitoris

3) scrotum or labia majora

13

Gonads of male - testes 

produce sperm & secrete hormones

14

System of ducts in male testes

 

transport & store sperm. assist in their maturation, convey them to exterior 

15

Sperm:

Seminiferous tubules → ?...

straight tubules → rete testis → efferent ducts in epididymis → ductus epididymis 

16

Function of Epididymis

sperm maturation & storage 

17

From epididymis, sperm travels to...

Vas deferens (ductus deferens)  (part of spermatic cord) → ejaculatory ducts → urethra  

18

Accessory sex glands (3) 

add secretions to semen 

seminal vesicles, prostate & bulbourethral glands

19

Accessory sex glands 

- seminal vesicles

help neutralize acidic environment of male urethra & female reproductive tract by secreting alkaline fluid 

- fructose for ATP production 

60% of sperm volume

20

Accessory sex glands 

- Prostate

slightly acidic fluid 

for ATP production, proteolytic enzymes to break down clotting (eventually) from seminal vesicle

antibiotic to destroy bacteria 

21

Accessory sex glands 

bulbourethral glands

alkaline fluid 

protects sperm by neutralizing acids from urine in urethra 

secrete mucus - lubricates end of penis & urethra lining, 

22

Scrotum 

supporting structure for testes 

23

raphe of scrotum

external median ridge 

24

1) Scrotal septum

 

2) Cremaster muscle

1) internally divides scrotum into two sacs, each containing a single testis 

made up of subQ layer & muscle tissue - dartos muscle (smooth muscle) 

2) series of skeletal muscle bands associated with each testis in scrotum

25

Testes 

1) tunica vaginalis

2) tunica albuginea

1) serous membrane partially covering testes 

2) internal - white fibrous capsule

extends inward & divides testis into lobules which contain seminiferous tubules that produce sperm

26

(2) types of cells in seminiferous tubules 

1) spermatogenic cells - sperm-forming cells

2) sertoli cells- functions in supporting spermatogenesis

27

Spermatagonia ( __ ___) develop from __ ___ cells that arise in ___ __ and enter testes in __ week of developement

(sperm cells) 

primordial germ cells

yolk sac

5th

28

toward lumen of seminiferous tubule are layers of progressively more mature cells. 

In order of advancing maturity: 

 

primary spermatocytes → 2ndary spermatocytes →spermatids →sperm cells

29

Sertoli cells

embedded among spermatogenic cells

extend from basement membrane to lumen 

- nourish, phagocytize xs cytoplasm, control movements, & release of sperm into lumen 

produce fluid for sperm transport

secrete inhibin & regulate effects of testosterone & FSH 

30

Leydig (interstitial) cells

found in spaces between seminiferous tubules

secrete testosterone