Chapter 6 & 7 - Bone Tissue + Axial Skeleton Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 6 & 7 - Bone Tissue + Axial Skeleton Deck (109)
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1

Distinguish between bone as a tissue and as an organ

bone is composed of several different tissues working together: bone, cartilage, dense connective, epithelium, adipose & nervous tissue 

therefore, each bone in your body is considered an organ 

2

Functions of Bone & Skeletal System (6)

1) support - structural framework

2) protection - protects internal organs

3) assistance in movement - skeletal muscle contract & pull on bones to produce movement

4) mineral homeostasis (storage & release) - bone tissue stores mineral 

5) blood cell production

6) triglyceride storage - yellow bone marrow consists of mainly adipose cells 

 

3

Structure of Bone (7) 

1) Diaphysis 

2) Epiphyses

3) Metaphyses

4) articular cartilage

5) periosteum

6) medullary (marrow) cavity

7) Endosteum

4

1) Diaphysis 

 

bone shaft or body

5

2) Epiphyses

 

proximal & distal ends of bone

6

3) Metaphyses

 

regions between diaphysis & epiphysis

contains epiphyseal (growth plate) 

when bone stops growing in length ,cartilage in epiphyseal plate is replaced by bone - epiphyseal line

7

4) articular cartilage

 

thin layer of hyaline cartilage covering part of epiphysis where bone forms an articulation (joint) with another bone

8

5) periosteum

 

 tough connective tissue sheath and its associated blood supply that surrounds bone surface wherever it is not covered by articular cartilage

outer fibrous layer &  inner osteogenic layer

9

6) medullary (marrow) cavity

 

hollow, cylindrical space within diaphysis that contains fatty yellow bone marrow & humerus blood vessels in adults

10

7) Endosteum



 



 thin membrane that lines medullary cavity 



- contains a single layer of bone‐forming cells and small amount of connective tissue.



 

 

 

11

Like other connective tissues, bone (osseous tissue) congtains an abundant ..?

extracellular matrix that surronds widely separated cells 

12

Extracellular Matrix 

made up of?

15% water

30% collagen fibers

55% crystallized mineral salts

13

The most abundant mineral salt in bone is?

calcium phosphate

14

calcification

calcium phosphate combines with calcium hydroxide to form hydroxyapatite 

as crystals form, they combine with other mineral salts (calcium carbonate, Mg, F, K & sulfate ions) 

as these mineral salts are deposited & crystalzie in framework formed by collagen fibers of ECM

initiated by osteoblasts (bone-building cells)

15

Calcification is initiated by?

osteoblasts - bone-building cells

16

 Bone’s flexibility depends on?

collagen fibers

17

(4) types of cells present in bone tissue

1) osteogenic

2) osteoblasts 

3) osteocytes

osteoclasts 

18

osteogenic cells

Undergo cell division

the resulting cells develop into osteoblasts 

(unspecialized bone stem cells) 

19

osteoblasts

 Bone-building cells

synthesize extracellular matrix of bone tissue 

become osteocytes

20

Osteocytes

mature bone cells

exchange nutrients & wastes with blood

(main cells in bone, maintain daily metabolism)

21

Osteoclasts 

huge cells derived from fusion of as many as 50 monocytes  (type of white blood cell) 

 Release enzymes that digest the mineral components of bone matrix (resporption)

regulate blood calcium level

22

(2) categories of bone

1) compact

spongy

23

Compact bone

resists?

components?

these consist of?

 

Resists the stresses produced by weight and movement  Components of compact bone are arranged into repeating structural units called osteons (Haversian systems) 

 Osteons consist of a central (Haversian) canal

- run longitudinally through bone

- with concentrically arranged lamellae, lacunae, osteocytes, and canaliculi 

24

Lamellae

part of osteon, concentric lamallae are around central canals 

rings of calcified matrix (like rings of tree trunk)

25

Between the Lamellae are?

containing?

small spaces called lacunae which contain osteocytes

 

26

Canaliculi

what are they?

connect & form what?

purpose?

tiny canals radiating in all directions from lacunae, filled with extracellular fluid 

- connect lacunae & forming system of interconnected canals 

provides route for nutrients & oxygen to reach osteocytes

27

The organization of osteons changes in response to ?

the physical demands placed on the skeleton 

28

Spongy Bone

- makes up most interior bone tissue

- lacks osteons

lamellae are arranged  in a lattice of thin columns called trabeculae which contain spaces (make bones lighter) 

trabeculae support & protect red bone marrow

- oriented around lines of stress (helps bones resist stresses without breaking) 

29

hematopoiesis 

blood cell production

occurs in spongy bone

30

Lacunae in spongy bone

Lacunae are within each trabecula

contain osteocytes that are nourished from blood circulating through trabeculae