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Flashcards in Chapter 8 - Appendicular Skeleton Deck (155):
1

Appendicular Skeleton

The primary function is ?

movement

2

Appendicular Skeleton includes?

 bones of the upper and lower limbs

girdles attach the limbs to the axial skeleton  

3

Each upper limb has __ bones

30

4

(2) seperate regions of upper limb

1) pectoral (shoulder) girdle (2 bones)

2) free part (30 bones)

5

Pectoral (shoulder) Girdle consists of 2 bones

1) scapula

2) clavicle

6

(30) bones of the the part of the upper limbs

1 humerus (arm)

1 radius (forearm)

 1 ulna (forearm) 

8 carpals (wrist)

 19 ( 5 metacarpals & 14 phalanges)  (hand)

7

Clavicle 

 

ends & joints

S shaped 

medial end  articulates with manubrium of sternum forming sternoclavicular joint

lateral end articulates with acromion forming acromioclavicular joint

8

The clavicle is :

______________in shape anteriorly near the sternal junction

 ______________anteriorly on its lateral edge near the acromion 

convex 

concave

9

Scapula (shoulder blade)

shape 

most notable features 

triangular 

spine, acromion, coracoid process & glenoid cavity

10

Scapula

- spine 

 a large process on the posterior of the scapula that ends laterally as the acromion 

11

acromion of scapula

  the flattened lateral portion of the spine of the scapula 

 

12

coracoid process of scapula

 a protruding projection on the anterior surface just inferior to the lateral aspect of the clavicle 

 

13

Glenoid Cavity of scapula

shallow concavity that articulates with the head of the humeru

 

14

Medial (vertebral) border of scapula

closest to the vertebral spine 

15

Superior border of scapula

superior edge

16

Lateral (axillary) border of scapula

closest to arm

17

Inferior angle of scapula

 where medial and lateral borders meet inferiorly 

18

Superior angle of scapulaa

 uppermost aspect of scapula where medial border meets superior border 

19

Subscapular fossa of scapula

anterior concavity where the subscapularis muscle attaches 

20

Supraspinous fossa of scapula

 posterior concavity superior to the scapular spine, attachment site for supraspinatus muscle 

21

Infraspinous fossa of scapula

- posterior concavity inferior to the scapular spine, site of infraspinatus muscle 

22

Humerus

- longest & largest bone of free part of upper limb

 

23

Humerus - articulation with shoulder blade

 proximal ball-shaped end of humerus articulates with glenoid cavity of the scapula (glenohumeral joint) 

24

Humerus - articulations

proximal ball end with glenoid cavity of scapula

distal end at elbow with radius & ulna

 

25

The head of the humerus has (2) unequal-sized projections

greater tubercle - lies more laterally

lesser tubercle - lies more anteriorly 

26

Between the tubercles lies the ______________ where the long head of the biceps brachii tendon is located 

intertubercular groove or sulcus (bicipital groove)

27

 Just distal to the head is the ___ ___ which is where the __ ___ begins and is a common area for fracture

surgical neck

tubular shaft

28

 About mid-shaft on the lateral aspect is a roughened area, the ___ ___ where the deltoid tendon attaches 

deltoid tuberosity 

29

 a round knob-like process on the lateral distal humerus 

 

capitulum

30

- medial to the capitulum, is a spool-shaped projection on the distal humerus 

trochlea

31

 anterior depression that receives the coronoid process of the ulna during forearm flexion 

coronoid fossa

32

posterior depression that receives the olecranon of the ulna during forearm extension 

olecranon fossa

33

medial & lateral epicondyles

 bony projections to which the forearm muscles attach  

34

The longer of the two forearm bones 

Ulna

35

Ulna 

location?

medial to the radius

36

e large, prominent proximal end, the “tip of your elbow” 

olecranon

37

 the anterior “lip” of the proximal ulna 

coronoid process

38

- the deep fossa that receives the trochlea of the humerus during elbow flexion  

trochlear notch

39

 the thin cylindrical projection on the posterior side of the ulna’s head  

styloid process

40

Lies lateral to the ulna (thumb side of the forearm)

Radius

41

Radius 

Location of Neck & Head 

articulations?

head (disc-shaped) and neck are at proximal end 

head articulates with capitulum of humerus and radial notch of the ulna 

42

- medial and inferior to neck, attachment site for biceps brachii muscle

radial tuberosity

43

 large distal projection on lateral side of radius 

styloid process

44

The shaft of the ulna & radius are connected by ?

an interosseus membrane 

45

Joints between ulna & radius

 proximal radioulnar joint and a distal radioulnar joint 

46

 proximal radioulnar joint

distal radioulnar joint 

Proximally, head of radius articulates with radial notch of ulna

Distally,  head of ulna articulates with ulnar notch of radius  

47

Carpus (wrist) 

consists of?

8 small bones (carpals) in 2 rows

48

(2) rows of carpal bones

Proximal row - scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, pisiform

Distal row - trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, hamate

 

(lateral to medial)  

49

most commonly fractured carpal bone

scaphoid 

50

Carpal tunnel

space between carpal bones & flexor retinaculum

51

Metacarpals 

how many? how are they numbered?

 

5 metacarpals

numbered I-V, lateral to medial

52

Phalanges of the hand 

how many?

14 phalanges

2 in the thumb (pollex), 3 in each of the other fingers

 

53

each metacarpal & phalanx has a ..(3) ?

base, shaft & head 

54

Joints of the Hand

carpometacarpal - distal row of carpals & metacarpal base

metacarpophalangeal - metacarpal head & proximal phalanges

interphalangeal - between phalanges

55

Skeleton of the Lower Limb 

(2) seperate regions

1) pelvic girdle (2 bones)

2) free part (30 bones) 

56

Pelvic (Hip) Girdle 

consists of?

3 bones that fuse together: 

superior ilium

inferior & anterior pubis 

inferior & posterior ischium

57

the 2 coxal bones are joined ___ by the ___ (___)

and ___ by the ___ forming the ____ joints

anteriorly by the pubic symphysis (fibrocartilage)

posteriorly by the sacrum forming the sacroiliac joints

58

The complete ring composed of the __ __, __ ___, and ___ forms a deep, basinlike structure called the bony pelvis

hip bones, pubic symphysis and sacrum 

 

59

Largest of the 3 hip bones

Ilium 

60

The Ilium is the ___ part of the hip bone 

consists of? (2) which forms?

 

superior part of hip bone

consists of superior ala inferior body which forms acetabulum (socket for head of femur) 

 

61

Superior border of Ilium 

ends?

iliac crest ends anteriorly in a blunt anterior superior iliac spine

 

62

Hip Pointer

bruising of the anterior superior iliac spine & associated soft tissues

63

Greater Sciatic Notch of Ilium

allows passage of sciatic nerve

64

Inferior and posterior part of hip bone

Ischium

65

Most prominent feature of the Ischium

Ischial tuberosity, the part that meets the chair when you are sitting

66

Inferior and anterior part of the hip bone 

Pubis

67

what (3) things make up the pubis of hip bone 

superior rami, inferior rami and body 

 

 

68

 anterior, superior border of body of pubis

pubic crest

69

Projection at lateral end of pubic crest 

 

pubic tubercle

70

The pubic tubercle is the beginning of? 

a raised line, the pectineal line

71

The pectineal line extends ___ and ___ along ___ ___ to merge with __ __ of ___.

extends superiorly and laterally along superior ramus to merge with arcuate line of ilium

72

What are important landmarks for distinguishing the superior (false) and inferior (true) portions of the bony pelvis.

the pectineal line and the arcuate line

73

Ischium is comprised of? (2) 

superior body and an inferior ramus (portion of ischium that fuses with pubis) 

74

Where is & what forms the pubic arch?

Inferior to the pubic symphysis (joint between 2 pubes of hip bones), the inferior rami of the 2 pubic bones converge to form the pubic arch 

75

acetabulum

 deep fossa formed by the ilium, ischium, and pubis that functions as a socket and accepts rounded head of femur

76

What forms the hip (coxal) joint

 the acetabulum and the femoral head 

77

 acetabular notch

deep indentation on inferior side of acetabulum that forms a foramen through which blood vessels & nerves pass & serves as point of attachment for ligaments of the femur

78

Head of Ulna vs. Head of Radius

Ulna: head = distal end

Radius: head (& neck) = proximal end

79

Pelvic Brim (Inlet) 

significance?

 

 a line from sacral promontory to upper part of pubic symphysis 

boundary that divides bony pelvis into superior & inferior portions 

80

Pelvic Brim can be traced by following landmarks around parts of the hip bone to form the outline of an oblique plane. 

Explain.

 

Begin posteriorly at sacral promontory of sacrum

trace laterally and inferiorly along arcuate lines of ilium.

Continue inferiorly along pectineal lines of pubis.

Finally, trace anteriorly along pubic crest to the superior portion of pubic symphysis.

81

False Pelvis

bordered by?

false (greater) pelvis

superior to pelvic brim

 

bordered by lumbar vertebrae (posteriorly), upper portion of hip bones (laterally) & abdominal wall (anteriorly) 

82

The False (greater) Pelvis contains?

 no pelvic organs except urinary bladder (when full) and uterus during pregnancy

83

True (lesserPelvis

 

 the bony pelvis inferior to pelvic brim

- has an inlet, an outlet and a cavity

84

True (lesser) Pelvis is bounded by?

sacrum & coccyx (posteriorly) 

inferior portions of ilium & ischium (laterally)

pubic bones (anteriorly) 

85

Pelvic Axis

an imaginary line that curves through true pelvis from central point of plane of pelvic inlet to central point of plane of pelvic outlet. 

the route taken during childbirth by the baby's head as it descends through the pelvis.

86

Pelves

Male vs. Female

1) general structure

2) false (greater) pelvis

3) pelvic brim (inlet) 

4) pubic arch

5) pubic outlet 

Males

1) bones are larger & heavier

2) deep 

3) narrow & heart-shaped

4)  less than 90°

5) narrower 

Females

1) light & thin

2) shallow 

3) wide & more oval 

4) greater than 90°

5) wider 

(more space in true pelvis) 

 

 

87

 longest, heaviest, and strongest bone in the body 

Femur

88

Lower Limbs 

30 bones in (4) locations

1) femur in thigh

2) patella (kneecap) 

3) tibia & fibula

4) 7 tarsals in tarsus, 5 metatarsals in metatarsus, 14 phalanges in foot 

89

Proximally, the head articulates with  ______________of the hip bone forming the hip (coxal) joint 

acetabulum

90

 distal to head of femur, common site of fracture 

neck 

91

Distally, the __ and ___ ____ articulate with the ___ of the __ forming the knee joint 

 

 medial and lateral condyles of the femur

medial and lateral condyles of the tibia

92

The distal end of the femur articulates with (2) 

tibia & patella

93

 Projections from the junction of the neck and shaft of the femur where large muscles attach 

Greater and lesser trochanter

94

 Between the anterior surfaces of the trochanters is a narrow? . 

 intertrochanteric line

95

 

 Intertrochanteric crest of the femur

A ridge between posterior surfaces of the trochanters 

96

 Gluteal tuberosity 

 vertical ridge inferior to intertrochanteric crest on posterior surface of body of  femur

97

Gluteal Tuberosity is a vertical ridge inferior to intertrochanteric crest on posterior surface of body of femur that blends into..

another vertical ridge called the linea aspera 

98

Gluteal tuberosity and linea aspera -

both are? 

attachment sites for the large hip muscle

99

Intercondylar fossa of femur

depression between the condyles on posterior surface 

100

muscle site attachments for the knee muscles

medial & lateral epidcondyles

101

Patella

Largest ______________bone in the body 

forms the ____ joint

sesamoid

tibiofemoral (knee) joint

102

Patella 

a) superior surface

b) inferior, narrower surface

a) base

b) apex

103

What lines the posterior surface of the patella?

Thick articular cartilage

 

104

The thick articular cartilage lines that the posterior surface increases?

leverage of quadriceps femoris muscle

105

 Patellofemoral stress syndrome - “runner’s knee”  

Rather than normal tracking (gliding) of patella supeiorly & inferiorly in groove between femoral condyles, the patella tracks laterally as well as superiorly and inferiorly

this increased pressure on joint causing aching or tenderness around or under patella 

106

The larger, medial weight-bearing bone of the leg 

Tibia

107

Shin bone

Tibia

108

What attaches the patella to the tibial tuberosity?

patellar ligament

109

patellofemoral joint

between posterior surface of patella & patellar surface of femur 

110

The Patellofemoral Joint is the intermediate component of the ?

tibiofemoral (knee) joint

111

What part of the tibia articulates with the femur

lateral & medial condyles at proximal end 

112

What part of the tibia articulates with the talus & fibula

distally, medial malleolus articulates with talus of ankle

fibular notch articulates with distal end of fibula to form distal tibiofibular joint

113

attachment site for the patellar ligament 

tibial tuberosity of tibia

114

Medial malleolus of tibia

 medial surface of distal end of tibia (medial surface of ankle joint) 

115

smaller, laterally placed bone of the leg

non-weight bearing 

Fibula

116

What forms the proximal tibiofibular joint

head of fibula (proximal end) & inferior surface of lateral condyle of tibia

117

What forms the distal tibiofibular joint

fibular notch of tibia & medial part of distal end of fibula 

118

 Lateral malleolus

 - distal end of fibula

articulates with tibia and the talus at the ankle

119

7 tarsal bones 

talus 

calcaneus 

navicular 

cuboid 

3 cuneiform bones (third/lateral, second/intermediate, first/medial)

120

Tarsals located in posterior part of foot

talus and calcaneus 

121

most superior tarsal bone 

articulates with?

Talus

articulates with the fibula and tibia

122

heel bone, largest & strongest

calcaneus 

in posterior part of foot

123

Anterior tarsal bones (5) 

 

navicular

third (lateral, second (intermediate), first (medial) cuneiform bones

cuboid

124

How many metatarsals?

How are they numbered?

each consists of?

5 metatarsals

I-V (medial to lateral)

base, shaft, head

125

1) Big toe

2) Ankle

1) Hallux

2) tarsus

126

Articulation between talus and tibia and fibula

on one side with medial malleolus of tibia 

on the other side with lateral malleolus of fibula

 

127

The talus articulates on one side with medial malleolus of tibia  and on the other side with lateral malleolus of fibula forming the?

 

talocrural (ankle) joint

128

Arches of the Foot 

function?

support weight of body (the arches flex when body weight applied) 

provide spring & leverage to foot when walking 

 

129

(2) arches of the foot

1) longitudinal arch

1) transverse arch

130

(2) Parts of the Longitudinal Arch

1) medial part

2) lateral part

131

Flatfoot 

arches decrease or "fall"

132

Clawfoot

too much arch due to various pathologies 

133

 Does the hyoid bone belong to the appendicular skeleton, axial skeleton, the upper extremity or the skull ?

axial skeleton

134

 Does the clavicle belong to the axial skeleton, the pectoral girdle, the pelvic girdle or the upper extremity? 

pectoral girdle

135

Long ends of the bone are called?

epiphysis

136

The patella is part of the ___ skeleton

appendicular 

137

What is an osteon?

a component of compact bone arranged in repeating structural units 

also known as Haversian Systems

 

(building block of compact bone)

138

Define trabeculae 

lamellae arranged in lattice of thin columns in spongy bone

(lamellae = concentric rings of calcified matrix)

139

What part of the rib articulates with the transverse process of a vertebra? 

nonarticular part of tubercle

140

 the most inferior portion of the sternum

xiphoid process

141

 the difference between the sacral foramina and the sacral canal? 

sacral foramina - openings on concave anterior & convex posterior side of sacrum

sacral canal - perpendicular to sacral foramina & is continuation of vertebral canal

142

second cervical vertebra 

axis

143

 A rib that attaches to the sternum by the cartilage of another rib has what name? 

vertebrochondral ribs

144

What structures make up the vertebral arch?

2 pedicles unite with flat laminae

145

 Which bone are the eyebrows superficial to? 

frontal bone

146

What bone is found just posterior to the ethmoid bone in the orbit? 

sphenoid bone

147

The sella turcica is found in what bone? 

sphenoid bone

148

 What are the two bony structures that make up the nasal septum? 

vomer and ethmoid bone

149

The humerus fits into what specific part of the scapula? 

glenoid cavity

150

What are the name of the condyles of the humerus?

lateral and medial epicondyles 

trochlea and capitulum

151

 What is the cuplike depression of the os coax into which the head of the femur fits?   

acetabulum of hip bone

152

The carpal bone at the base of the thumb

trapezium

153

another name for the heel bone

calcaneus

154

 How many bones are in the ankle vs. the number of bones in the wrist

tarsal (ankle) bones

carpal (wrist) bones

155