The primary function is ?
Appendicular Skeleton includes?
bones of the upper and lower limbs
girdles attach the limbs to the axial skeleton
Each upper limb has __ bones
(2) seperate regions of upper limb
1) pectoral (shoulder) girdle (2 bones)
2) free part (30 bones)
Pectoral (shoulder) Girdle consists of 2 bones
(30) bones of the the part of the upper limbs
1 humerus (arm)
1 radius (forearm)
1 ulna (forearm)
8 carpals (wrist)
19 ( 5 metacarpals & 14 phalanges) (hand)
ends & joints
medial end articulates with manubrium of sternum forming sternoclavicular joint
lateral end articulates with acromion forming acromioclavicular joint
The clavicle is :
______________in shape anteriorly near the sternal junction
______________anteriorly on its lateral edge near the acromion
Scapula (shoulder blade)
most notable features
spine, acromion, coracoid process & glenoid cavity
a large process on the posterior of the scapula that ends laterally as the acromion
acromion of scapula
the flattened lateral portion of the spine of the scapula
coracoid process of scapula
a protruding projection on the anterior surface just inferior to the lateral aspect of the clavicle
Glenoid Cavity of scapula
shallow concavity that articulates with the head of the humeru
Medial (vertebral) border of scapula
closest to the vertebral spine
Superior border of scapula
Lateral (axillary) border of scapula
closest to arm
Inferior angle of scapula
where medial and lateral borders meet inferiorly
Superior angle of scapulaa
uppermost aspect of scapula where medial border meets superior border
Subscapular fossa of scapula
anterior concavity where the subscapularis muscle attaches
Supraspinous fossa of scapula
posterior concavity superior to the scapular spine, attachment site for supraspinatus muscle
Infraspinous fossa of scapula
- posterior concavity inferior to the scapular spine, site of infraspinatus muscle
- longest & largest bone of free part of upper limb
Humerus - articulation with shoulder blade
proximal ball-shaped end of humerus articulates with glenoid cavity of the scapula (glenohumeral joint)
Humerus - articulations
proximal ball end with glenoid cavity of scapula
distal end at elbow with radius & ulna
The head of the humerus has (2) unequal-sized projections
greater tubercle - lies more laterally
lesser tubercle - lies more anteriorly
Between the tubercles lies the ______________ where the long head of the biceps brachii tendon is located
intertubercular groove or sulcus (bicipital groove)
Just distal to the head is the ___ ___ which is where the __ ___ begins and is a common area for fracture
About mid-shaft on the lateral aspect is a roughened area, the ___ ___ where the deltoid tendon attaches
a round knob-like process on the lateral distal humerus
- medial to the capitulum, is a spool-shaped projection on the distal humerus
anterior depression that receives the coronoid process of the ulna during forearm flexion
posterior depression that receives the olecranon of the ulna during forearm extension
medial & lateral epicondyles
bony projections to which the forearm muscles attach
The longer of the two forearm bones
medial to the radius
e large, prominent proximal end, the “tip of your elbow”
the anterior “lip” of the proximal ulna
- the deep fossa that receives the trochlea of the humerus during elbow flexion
the thin cylindrical projection on the posterior side of the ulna’s head
Lies lateral to the ulna (thumb side of the forearm)
Location of Neck & Head
head (disc-shaped) and neck are at proximal end
head articulates with capitulum of humerus and radial notch of the ulna
- medial and inferior to neck, attachment site for biceps brachii muscle
large distal projection on lateral side of radius
The shaft of the ulna & radius are connected by ?
an interosseus membrane
Joints between ulna & radius
proximal radioulnar joint and a distal radioulnar joint
proximal radioulnar joint
distal radioulnar joint
Proximally, head of radius articulates with radial notch of ulna
Distally, head of ulna articulates with ulnar notch of radius
8 small bones (carpals) in 2 rows
(2) rows of carpal bones
Proximal row - scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, pisiform
Distal row - trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, hamate
(lateral to medial)
most commonly fractured carpal bone
space between carpal bones & flexor retinaculum
how many? how are they numbered?
numbered I-V, lateral to medial
Phalanges of the hand
2 in the thumb (pollex), 3 in each of the other fingers
each metacarpal & phalanx has a ..(3) ?
base, shaft & head
Joints of the Hand
carpometacarpal - distal row of carpals & metacarpal base
metacarpophalangeal - metacarpal head & proximal phalanges
interphalangeal - between phalanges
Skeleton of the Lower Limb
(2) seperate regions
1) pelvic girdle (2 bones)
2) free part (30 bones)
Pelvic (Hip) Girdle
3 bones that fuse together:
inferior & anterior pubis
inferior & posterior ischium
the 2 coxal bones are joined ___ by the ___ (___)
and ___ by the ___ forming the ____ joints
anteriorly by the pubic symphysis (fibrocartilage)
posteriorly by the sacrum forming the sacroiliac joints
The complete ring composed of the __ __, __ ___, and ___ forms a deep, basinlike structure called the bony pelvis
hip bones, pubic symphysis and sacrum
Largest of the 3 hip bones
The Ilium is the ___ part of the hip bone
consists of? (2) which forms?
superior part of hip bone
consists of superior ala & inferior body which forms acetabulum (socket for head of femur)
Superior border of Ilium
iliac crest ends anteriorly in a blunt anterior superior iliac spine
bruising of the anterior superior iliac spine & associated soft tissues
Greater Sciatic Notch of Ilium
allows passage of sciatic nerve
Inferior and posterior part of hip bone
Most prominent feature of the Ischium
Ischial tuberosity, the part that meets the chair when you are sitting
Inferior and anterior part of the hip bone
what (3) things make up the pubis of hip bone
superior rami, inferior rami and body
anterior, superior border of body of pubis
Projection at lateral end of pubic crest
The pubic tubercle is the beginning of?
a raised line, the pectineal line
The pectineal line extends ___ and ___ along ___ ___ to merge with __ __ of ___.
extends superiorly and laterally along superior ramus to merge with arcuate line of ilium.
What are important landmarks for distinguishing the superior (false) and inferior (true) portions of the bony pelvis.
the pectineal line and the arcuate line
Ischium is comprised of? (2)
superior body and an inferior ramus (portion of ischium that fuses with pubis)
Where is & what forms the pubic arch?
Inferior to the pubic symphysis (joint between 2 pubes of hip bones), the inferior rami of the 2 pubic bones converge to form the pubic arch
deep fossa formed by the ilium, ischium, and pubis that functions as a socket and accepts rounded head of femur
What forms the hip (coxal) joint
the acetabulum and the femoral head
deep indentation on inferior side of acetabulum that forms a foramen through which blood vessels & nerves pass & serves as point of attachment for ligaments of the femur
Head of Ulna vs. Head of Radius
Ulna: head = distal end
Radius: head (& neck) = proximal end
Pelvic Brim (Inlet)
a line from sacral promontory to upper part of pubic symphysis
boundary that divides bony pelvis into superior & inferior portions
Pelvic Brim can be traced by following landmarks around parts of the hip bone to form the outline of an oblique plane.
Begin posteriorly at sacral promontory of sacrum
trace laterally and inferiorly along arcuate lines of ilium.
Continue inferiorly along pectineal lines of pubis.
Finally, trace anteriorly along pubic crest to the superior portion of pubic symphysis.
false (greater) pelvis
superior to pelvic brim
bordered by lumbar vertebrae (posteriorly), upper portion of hip bones (laterally) & abdominal wall (anteriorly)
The False (greater) Pelvis contains?
no pelvic organs except urinary bladder (when full) and uterus during pregnancy
True (lesser) Pelvis
the bony pelvis inferior to pelvic brim
- has an inlet, an outlet and a cavity
True (lesser) Pelvis is bounded by?
sacrum & coccyx (posteriorly)
inferior portions of ilium & ischium (laterally)
pubic bones (anteriorly)
an imaginary line that curves through true pelvis from central point of plane of pelvic inlet to central point of plane of pelvic outlet.
the route taken during childbirth by the baby's head as it descends through the pelvis.
Male vs. Female
1) general structure
2) false (greater) pelvis
3) pelvic brim (inlet)
4) pubic arch
5) pubic outlet
1) bones are larger & heavier
3) narrow & heart-shaped
4) less than 90°
1) light & thin
3) wide & more oval
4) greater than 90°
(more space in true pelvis)
longest, heaviest, and strongest bone in the body
30 bones in (4) locations
1) femur in thigh
2) patella (kneecap)
3) tibia & fibula
4) 7 tarsals in tarsus, 5 metatarsals in metatarsus, 14 phalanges in foot
Proximally, the head articulates with ______________of the hip bone forming the hip (coxal) joint
distal to head of femur, common site of fracture
Distally, the __ and ___ ____ articulate with the ___ of the __ forming the knee joint
medial and lateral condyles of the femur
medial and lateral condyles of the tibia
The distal end of the femur articulates with (2)
tibia & patella
Projections from the junction of the neck and shaft of the femur where large muscles attach
Greater and lesser trochanter
Between the anterior surfaces of the trochanters is a narrow? .
Intertrochanteric crest of the femur
A ridge between posterior surfaces of the trochanters
vertical ridge inferior to intertrochanteric crest on posterior surface of body of femur
Gluteal Tuberosity is a vertical ridge inferior to intertrochanteric crest on posterior surface of body of femur that blends into..
another vertical ridge called the linea aspera
Gluteal tuberosity and linea aspera -
attachment sites for the large hip muscle
Intercondylar fossa of femur
depression between the condyles on posterior surface
muscle site attachments for the knee muscles
medial & lateral epidcondyles
Largest ______________bone in the body
forms the ____ joint
tibiofemoral (knee) joint
a) superior surface
b) inferior, narrower surface
What lines the posterior surface of the patella?
Thick articular cartilage
The thick articular cartilage lines that the posterior surface increases?
leverage of quadriceps femoris muscle
Patellofemoral stress syndrome - “runner’s knee”
Rather than normal tracking (gliding) of patella supeiorly & inferiorly in groove between femoral condyles, the patella tracks laterally as well as superiorly and inferiorly
this increased pressure on joint causing aching or tenderness around or under patella
The larger, medial weight-bearing bone of the leg
What attaches the patella to the tibial tuberosity?
between posterior surface of patella & patellar surface of femur
The Patellofemoral Joint is the intermediate component of the ?
tibiofemoral (knee) joint
What part of the tibia articulates with the femur
lateral & medial condyles at proximal end
What part of the tibia articulates with the talus & fibula
distally, medial malleolus articulates with talus of ankle
fibular notch articulates with distal end of fibula to form distal tibiofibular joint
attachment site for the patellar ligament
tibial tuberosity of tibia
Medial malleolus of tibia
medial surface of distal end of tibia (medial surface of ankle joint)
smaller, laterally placed bone of the leg
What forms the proximal tibiofibular joint
head of fibula (proximal end) & inferior surface of lateral condyle of tibia
What forms the distal tibiofibular joint
fibular notch of tibia & medial part of distal end of fibula
- distal end of fibula
articulates with tibia and the talus at the ankle
7 tarsal bones
3 cuneiform bones (third/lateral, second/intermediate, first/medial)
Tarsals located in posterior part of foot
talus and calcaneus
most superior tarsal bone
articulates with the fibula and tibia
heel bone, largest & strongest
in posterior part of foot
Anterior tarsal bones (5)
third (lateral, second (intermediate), first (medial) cuneiform bones
How many metatarsals?
How are they numbered?
each consists of?
I-V (medial to lateral)
base, shaft, head
1) Big toe
Articulation between talus and tibia and fibula
on one side with medial malleolus of tibia
on the other side with lateral malleolus of fibula
The talus articulates on one side with medial malleolus of tibia and on the other side with lateral malleolus of fibula forming the?
talocrural (ankle) joint
Arches of the Foot
support weight of body (the arches flex when body weight applied)
provide spring & leverage to foot when walking
(2) arches of the foot
1) longitudinal arch
1) transverse arch
(2) Parts of the Longitudinal Arch
1) medial part
2) lateral part
arches decrease or "fall"
too much arch due to various pathologies
Does the hyoid bone belong to the appendicular skeleton, axial skeleton, the upper extremity or the skull ?
Does the clavicle belong to the axial skeleton, the pectoral girdle, the pelvic girdle or the upper extremity?
Long ends of the bone are called?
The patella is part of the ___ skeleton
What is an osteon?
a component of compact bone arranged in repeating structural units
also known as Haversian Systems
(building block of compact bone)
lamellae arranged in lattice of thin columns in spongy bone
(lamellae = concentric rings of calcified matrix)
What part of the rib articulates with the transverse process of a vertebra?
nonarticular part of tubercle
the most inferior portion of the sternum
the difference between the sacral foramina and the sacral canal?
sacral foramina - openings on concave anterior & convex posterior side of sacrum
sacral canal - perpendicular to sacral foramina & is continuation of vertebral canal
second cervical vertebra
A rib that attaches to the sternum by the cartilage of another rib has what name?
What structures make up the vertebral arch?
2 pedicles unite with flat laminae
Which bone are the eyebrows superficial to?
What bone is found just posterior to the ethmoid bone in the orbit?
The sella turcica is found in what bone?
What are the two bony structures that make up the nasal septum?
vomer and ethmoid bone
The humerus fits into what specific part of the scapula?
What are the name of the condyles of the humerus?
lateral and medial epicondyles
trochlea and capitulum
What is the cuplike depression of the os coax into which the head of the femur fits?
acetabulum of hip bone
The carpal bone at the base of the thumb
another name for the heel bone
How many bones are in the ankle vs. the number of bones in the wrist?
7 tarsal (ankle) bones
8 carpal (wrist) bones