Chapter 10 - Muscular Tissue Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 10 - Muscular Tissue Deck (193):
1

(3)  types of muscular tissue 

skeletal

cardiac

smooth

2

skeletal muscle 

moves?

striated?

voluntary/involuntary?

moves bones

striated 

works in voluntary manner  but also controlled subconsciously 

 

3

Cardiac Muscle

found where?

striated? 

voluntary/involuntary action?

found only in walls of the heart

striated

involuntary 

4

Smooth Muscle

located?

striated? 

involuntary/voluntary action?

located in walls of hollow internal structure (blood vessels, airways & many organs)

lacks striations

usually involuntary

5

Functions of Muscular Tissue (4) 

1) producing body movements 

2) stabilizing body positions 

3) moving substances within body

4) generating heat

6

Properties of Muscular Tissue (4) 

1) electrical excitability

2) contractibility

3) extensibility (stretch)

4) Elasticity (can return to normal length) 

7

Skeletal Muscle Tissue

connective tissue components 

Fascia

Epimysium 

Perimysium 

Endomysium 

8

Fascia

 Dense sheet or broad band of irregular connective tissue that surrounds muscles 

9

(3) layers of connective tissue extend from fascia to protect & strengthen skeletal muscle

1) Epimysium

2) Perimysium

3) Endomysium

10

1) Epimysium

 The outermost layer of dense irregular connective tissue 

circles entire muscle

11

2) Perimysium

Separates 10-100 muscle fibers into bundles called fascicles

 

12

3) Endomysium

penetrates interior of each fasicle & seperates individual muscle fibers from one another (mostly reticular fibers)

13

Tendon

cord that attached muscle to a bone

14

Aponeurosis

connective tissue elements extend as broad flat sheet 

(broad flattened tendon)

15

Neurons that stimulate skeletal muscle to contract are ____________motor neurons 

The axon of a somatic motor neuron typically ____________many times, with each ___ extending to a different skeletal muscle fiber 

somatic

branches

branch

16

The ____________of skeletal muscle fibers is set before you are born 

(most of these cells last a lifetime) 

number

17

Muscle growth occurs by?

muscular hypertrophy - an enlargement of existing muscle fibers

18

What can stimulate hypertrophy?

Testosterone Human Growth Hormone 

19

what cells  retain the capacity to regenerate damaged muscle fibers ?

satellite cells

20

The plasma membrane of a muscle cell 

sarcolemma

21

Tiny invaginations of sarcolemma

Tunnel in from the plasma membrane

Muscle action potentials travel through 

Transverse (T Tubules)

22

 the cytoplasm of a muscle fiber 

 includes glycogen used for synthesis of ATP and a red-colored protein called  ____ which binds oxygen molecules 

Sarcoplasm

 

Myoglobin

23

Myoglobin & oxygen?

protein that binds oxygen and releases it when it is needed for ATP production

24

 Thread like structures within the sarcoplasm which have a contractile function 

myofibrils

25

membranous sacs which encircles each myofibril

Sarcoplasmic reticulum

26

dilated end sacs that butt against T-tubules from both sides 

 Stores calcium ions (Ca++) 

& releases to trigger muscle contraction

terminal cisterns of

Sacoplasmic Reticulum

27

(myo)filaments 

smaller protein structures within myofibrils that function in the contractile process 

thin and thick

(2 thin for every thick)

28

 

compartments of arranged filaments 

basic functional unit of a myofibril

 

Sarcomeres

(extend from one Z disc to another) 

29

Narrow plate-shaped region of dense protein material 

 Separate one sarcomere from the next

 

Z discs

30

Thick and thin filaments overlap one another but the extent of overlap depends on?

whether muscle is contracted, relaxed or stretched

 

31

Darker middle part of sarcomere that extends entire length of thick filaments & includes parts of thin filaments that overlap thick filaments

A band

32

Zone of Overlap

toward each end of A band where thin & thick filaments lie side by side

33

lighter, less dense area of sarcomere that contains thin but no thick filaments

Z discs passes through center of each

I band

34

center of each A band which contains thick but no thin filaments

H zone

35

M line

supporting proteins that hold thick filaments together in H zone

36

 Myofibrils are built from (3) kinds of proteins 

1) contractile

2) regulatory

3) structural 

37

Contractile proteins (2) 

1) Myosin

2) Actin

38

Myosin

thick filaments

Functions as a motor protein (can achieve motion)

 Convert ATP to energy of motion

 Projections of each myosin molecule protrude outward (myosin head

39

Actin

Thin filaments

actin molecules provide a site where a myosin head can attach

 

40

Myosin

head vs tail.

head - shaped like 2 golf clubs & protrude outward towards thin filaments

tail - point toward M line in center of sarcomere

41

Other parts of thin filaments other than actin

 Tropomyosin and troponin are also part of the thin filament 

 

42

 In relaxed muscle 

 Myosin is blocked from binding to actin. Why?

How do can muscle contractions occur?

 

 

WHY?  -  because trands of tropomyosin cover the myosin-binding sites (held in place by troponin) 

Calcium ion binding to troponin moves tropomyosin away from myosin- binding sites 

 Allows muscle contraction to begin as myosin binds to actin

 

43

Structural Proteins (2) 

1) Titin

2) Dystrophin

44

1) Titin

 

stabilize position of myosin 

accounts for much of the elasticity & extensibilituy of myofibrils

45

2) Dystrophin

links thin filaments to sarcolemma

46

Sliding Filament Mechanism

myosin heads attach to and “walk” along thin filaments at both ends of sarcomere 

pulling thin filaments toward center of sarcomere 

Z discs come closer together & sarcomere shortens leading to shortening of entire muscle

47

 Length–Tension Relationship 

___ of muscle contraction depends on __ of ___

forcefulness of muscle contraction depends on length of sarcomeres

48

When muscle fiber is stretched, 

what happens to overlap and tension (forcefulness) ?

LESS overlap between thick & thin filaments 

tension is diminished

49

When a muscle fiber is shortened, 

what happens to filaments and tension?

filaments are compressed (thick filaments crumple as they are compressed against Z discs) 

fewer myosin heads make contact with thin filaments 

tension is diminished

50

Neuromuscular Junction

synapse between a somatic motor neuron & a skeletal muscle fiber

51

Where communication occurs between a somatic motor neuron and a muscle fiber 

synapse

52

Gap that separates the two cells 

synaptic cleft

53

 Chemical released by the initial cell communicating with the second cell 

neurotransmitters 

54

sacs  suspended within the synaptic end bulb containing molecules of the neurotransmitter ______

Synaptic Vesicles

contain ​acetylcholine (Ach) 

55

 The region of the muscle cell membrane opposite the synaptic end bulbs that contains Acetylcholine receptors

Motor End Plate

56

The tension or force of muscle cell contraction varies and is dependant on (4) 

1) The rate at which nerve impulses arrive  (impulses/sec) - frequency of stimulation

2)The amount of stretch before contraction

3) The nutrient and oxygen availability

4) The size of the motor unit 

57

Motor Units consists of a __ ___ and the __ __ it stimulates

motor neuron 

muscle fibers

58

The axon of a motor neuron branches out forming __ ___ with different muscular fibers (about 150) 

neuromuscular junctions

59

Control of precise movements consist of many small motor units 

How many muscle fibers per motor unit for:

1) voice production muscles

2) muscle controlling eye movement

3) muscles in arm & leg

1) 2-3

2) 10-20

3) 2000-3000

60

The total ____________of a contraction depends on the size of the motor units and the number that are activated 

strength

61

 A small amount of ____________in the muscle due to weak contractions of motor units 

 Small groups of motor units are alternatively active and inactive in a constantly shifting pattern to sustain muscle ____________ to keep skeletal muscle firm

tautness (tension)

tone

 

62

(2) types of contractions

1) isotonic

2) isometric

63

Isotonic Contraction

tension developed remains constant while the muscle changes its length

 Used for body movements and for moving objects

ie. Picking a book up off a table 

64

Isometric Contraction

The tension generated is not enough for the object to be moved and the muscle does not change its length

tension increases without a change in muscle length

 Holding a book steady using an outstretched arm 

65

(2) types of isotonic contraction

1) concentric 

2) eccentric

66

concentric isotonic contraction

tension generated is great enough to overcome resistance of object to be moved, muscle shortens & pulls on another structure to produce movement & to reduce angle at a joint

67

eccentric muscle contraction

length of muscle increases 

68

Muscle fibers vary in their content of ___

myoglobin  - red-coloured protein that binds oxygen in muscle fibers

69

Red Muscle Fibers

skeletal muscle fibers that have a high myoglobin content 

- appear darker (dark meat in chicken legs & thighs) 

contain more mitochondria 

supplied by more blood capillaries

70

White Muscles Fibers 

Have a low myoglobin content

Appear lighter (white meat in chicken breasts) 

71

Muscle fibers contract at different speeds, and vary in how quickly they fatigue.

Muscle fibers are classified into (3) main types based on structural & functional characteristics.

1) Slow oxidative (SO) fibers

2) Fast oxidative-glycolytic (FOG) fibers

 3) Fast glycolytic (FG) fibers 

72

1) Slow oxidative (SO) fibers

diameter size?

power?

appearance?

generate ATP by?

speed of contraction?

time until fatigue?

for what activities?

smallest

least powerful

dark red (more myoglobin)

mainly aerobic cellular respiration

slow contraction speed (last 100-200 msec)

very resistant to fatigue

capable of prolonged, sustained contractions for many hours 

adapted for maintaining posture, aerobic, endurance-type activities (running marathons)

73

2) Fast oxidative-glycolytic (FOG) fibers

diameter?

contains? appearance?

generates ATP by?

resistance to fatigue?

speed of contraction?

contribute to which activities?

intermediate diameter size

lots of myoglobin & many blood capillaries 

aerobic cellular respiration but also anaerobic glycolysis

moderately high resistance to fatigue

faster contraction speed ( < 100 msec)

walking & sprinting

74

 3) Fast glycolytic (FG) fibers 

diameter?

strength?

contains? appearance?

generates ATP by?

resistance to fatigue?

adapted for?

largest 

most powerful contractions

low myoglobin, few blood capillaries & mitochondria

white in colour

mainly by glycolysis 

fibers contract strongly & quickly

fatigue quickly

intense anaerobic movements of short duration (weight lifting) 

75

Most muscles are a mixture of all 3 types of muscle fibers

Proportions vary, depending on ....(3)

1) action of the muscle

2) the person ’s training regimen

3) genetic factors

76

Postural muscles of the neck, back, and legs have a high proportion of ____________fibers 

slow-oxidative (SO)

77

Muscles of the shoulders and arms have a high proportion of ____________fibers

Fast-Glycolytic (FG) 

78

 Leg muscles have large numbers of both ____________and ____________fibers 

Slow-Oxidative (SO) and Fast Oxidative-Glycolytic (FOG) 

79

Various types of exercises can induce changes in muscle fibers

1) ____________exercise transforms some FG fibers into FOG fibers (does not increase muscle mass) 

1) endurance 

80

 Exercises that require short bursts of strength produce an increase in the size of ___ fibers

Fast Glycolytic (FG)

81

1)  Individuals with a higher proportion of FG fibers  excel in ____________activity ( 2 examples)

2) Individuals with higher percentages of SO fibers excel in ____________activities (2 examples) 

1) intense activity  (weight lifting, sprinting) 

2) endurance activity (long-distance running) 

82

Muscle enlargement (hypertrophy) due to increased...

 synthesis of thick and thin filaments  

83

Cardiac Muscle Tissue is the principal tissue in the ___ wall 

heart wall

84

Cardiac Muscle Tissue

what connects the ends of cardiac muscle fibers to one another?

intercalated discs

85

Cardiac Muscle fibers have the same arrangedment of actin & myosin & same bands, zones & Z discs as skeletal muscle fibers but intercalated discs are unique to cardiac muscle fibers. 

These discs contain (2) 

1) desmosomes - hold fibers together 

2) gap junctions - allow muscle action potentials to spread from one cardiac muscle fiber to anotehr 

86

Cardiac muscle tissue contracts when stimulated by its own ____________muscle fibers

autorhythmic

87

 major physiological difference between cardiac and skeletal muscle tissue

continuous, rhythmic activity

88

Contractions of cardiac muscle last ___ than a skeletal muscle twitch

longer

89

Cardiac muscle depends on _____ to generate ATP

aerobic respiration

many mitochondria

requires constant supply of oxygen 

90

Smooth Muscle Tissue 

usually activated ___

Action potentials are spread through the fibers by ____________junctions

Fibers are stimulated by certain ___ , __, or ___ signals 

involuntarily

gap junctions

neurotransmitter, hormone or autorhythmic signals

91

Smooth Muscle Tissue 

is found in the walls of? (4) 

& muscles that attach/adjust? (3) 

walls of arteries, veins, hollow organs, airways to lungs

muscles that attach to hair follicles, adjust pupil diameter & adjust focus on lens in eye

92

Smooth Muscle contains ...? arrangement?

both thick and thin filaments 

not arranged in sarcomeres

no regular pattern of overlap (not striated) 

contains only small amount of stored Ca2+ 

 

93

In Smooth muscle fibers, thin filaments attach to?

dense bodies & stretch from one dense body to another

94

Dense bodies of smooth muscle tissue

function?

function in same way as Z discs

during contraction, filaments pull on dense bodies causing shorting of muscle fiber

95

Contraction of smooth muscle lasts ____________than skeletal muscle contraction 

initiated by? from?

longer (starts more slowly)

initiated by Ca2+ flow primarily from interstitial fluid & SR

Ca2+ moves slowly out of muscle fiber delaying relaxation 

96

Smooth Muscle

Able to sustain long-term muscle tone because?

Prolonged presence of Ca++ in the cell provides for a state of continued partial contraction 

 

97

Smooth Muscle is imporant in (2)?

Gastrointestinal tract where a steady pressure is maintained on contents of the tract

In walls of blood vessels which maintain a steady pressure on blood 

98

Most smooth muscle fibers contract or relax in response to? (4) 

1) action potentials from autonomic nervous sytem

2) in response to stretching

3) hormones 

4) changes in pH, oxygen & CO2 levels 

99

 Muscles of the body are derived from ____________ 

mesoderm except muscles of iris & arrector pili

 

100

As the mesoderm develops it becomes arranged in dense columns on either side of the developing spinal cord

These columns undergo?

segmentation into a series of cube-shaped structures (somites)

101

The cells of a somite differentiate into (3) regions

 

1) myotome

2) dermatome 

3) scleratome

102

1) myotome

2) dermatome 

3) scleratome

1) Forms skeletal muscles of head, neck, and limbs 

2) Forms the connective tissues, including dermis of skin 

3) gives rise to the vertebrae

103

Cardiac muscle and smooth muscle develop from migrating mesoderm cells that migrate to & envelop developing ___ 

cardiac muscle- migrate to & envelop developing heart while it is still in the form of endocardial heart tubes 

smooth muscle - migrate to & envelop developing gastrointestinal tract & viscera

104

the attachment of a tendon to the stationary bone

origin

105

the attachment of the muscle’s other tendon to the movable bone 

insertion 

106

the main movements of a muscle that occur during contraction

actions

107

 rigid structure (1) that can move around a fixed point (2)

1) lever

2) fulcrum

108

A lever is acted on at two different points by (2) different forces: 

1) effort - causes movement

2) load or resistance - opposes movement

 

109

1) force due to muscular contraction

2) weight that is moved 

1) effort (E) 

2) load or resistance

110

Motion occurs when?

the effort applied to bone at insertion exceeds load.

111

 (3) types of levers that differ on the positions of the fulcrum, effort, and load

first-class levers - fulcrum between effort & load

second-class levers - load between fulcrum & effort

third-class levers - effort between fulcrum & load

112

origin

 

attachement to stationary end of muscle

113

belly (body)

thickerm middle region of muscle

114

insertion

attachement to mobile end of muscle

115

 All muscle fibers are parallel to one another within a single fascicle.

However, fascicles form patterns with respect to tendons (5) 

1) parallel 

2) fusiform

3) circular

4) triangular 

5) pennate

 

116

thick in middle and tapered at ends 

(biceps brachii) 

fusiform

117

parallel fascicles 

(rectus abdominis) 

parallel

118

 broad at origin and tapering to a narrower insertion 

triangular

119

fascicles insert obliquely on a tendon 

multipennate

120

fascicles arranged:

1) only on 1 side of tendon

2) both sides of centrally positioned tendon

 

1) unipennate

2) bipennate 

121

ring around body opening

circular

122

prime mover (agonist) 

produces most of force 

contracts & causes action

123

syngergists

aid prime mover (located close) 

stabilizes nearby joint to prevent unwanted movement 

 

124

antagonist

opposes prime mover

preventing excessive movement & injury 

125

fixator

stabilize origin of prime mover 

prevents movement of bone

126

It is common to attribute a specific action at a joint to a single muscle bundle, but muscles do not work in _____________ 

Movements usually result from several skeletal muscles acting as a group. Most skeletal muscles are arranged in _____________ (antagonistic) pairs at joints 

In an opposing muscle pair, one is called the prime mover or agonist and is responsible for the action, while the other muscle called the _____________ stretches and yields to effects of the agonist

 To prevent unwanted _____________ at other joints or to otherwise aid the movement of the agonist, muscles called _____________ contract and stabilize the intermediate joints. 

 Other muscles act as _____________ , stabilizing the origin of the agonist so that the agonist is more efficiently

isolation

opposing

antagonist

movement

synergists

fixators

127

Muscles of facial expression

located?

originate? insert?

lie within subcutaneous layer 

originate in fascia or skull bones

insert into skin

128

Because of their insertions, the muscles of facial expression move the ____________rather than a ____________when they contract. 

skin rather than a joint

129

Facial expression muscles innervated by?

facial (VII) nerve (CN VII) 

130

(6) extrinsic eye muscles control movements of each eyeball. 

(originate on outside of eyeballs in bony orbit & insert on outer surface of sclera)

superior recti

inferior recti

lateral recti

medial recti

superior oblique

inferior oblique

131

superior rectus

moves eye superiorly & medially (elevation & adduction) 

rotates eye medially

132

inferior rectus

moves eye inferiorly (depression) & medially (adduction) & rotates medially

133

lateral & medial rectus

move eye laterally (abduction) & medially (adduction) 

134

inferior oblique

elevation & abduction & rotates laterally

135

superior oblique

depression, abduction & rotates medially 

136

Recti muscles of the eye have obvious actions.

The actions of the (2) oblique eye muscles can't be deduced from their names. 

origin & insertion of oblique eye muscles 

1) superior oblique

origin: sphenoid, superior & medial to tendinous ring in orbit

insertion: between superior & lateral recti (via tendon that passes through trochlea)

2) inferior oblique

origin: maxilla in floor of orbit

insertion: between inferior & lateral recti

137

levator palpebrae superioris

origin, insertion, action

does not move eyeball

origin: roof of orbit

insertion: skin of upper eyelids

actions: elevates upper eyelid (opens eyes) 

138

Muscles of the tongue 

(2) types

1) intrinsic - alter shape of tongue 

2) extrinsic -move tongue, connect tongue to hyoid, styloid process, palate & inside of chin

139

(4) extrinsic muscles of the tongue

 

genioglossus - down & forward

styloglossus - up & backward

Hyoglossus - down & flattens

Palatoglossus - raises posterior portio

 

140

Muscles of Mastication (4) 

Masseter - close mouth

Temporalis - elevate & retract

Medial Pterygoid - elevate, protrude, side to side 

Lateral Pterygoid - protract, depress (open), side to side

141

Muscles of Mastication 

arise from?

insert on? 

arise from temporomandibular joint (TMJ)  insert on mandible 

142

Temporalis and Masseter _________ the mandible 

Medial and Lateral Pterygoids help elevate, but produce ________ swinging of jaw 

close 

side to side

143

The ____________, ____________, and medial ____________account for the strength of the bite.

 The medial and lateral ____________muscles help to chew by moving the mandible from side to side.  Additionally, these muscles protract (protrude) the mandible.  

Masseter, Temporalis & medial pterygoid

pterygoid

144

 swallowing & speech

(2) main muscle groups in the anterior neck

1) suprahyoid - superior to hyoid

2) infrahyoid - inferior to hyoid

145

Both Suprahyoid & Infrahyoid muscles ___ the hyoid bone, allowing it to serve as a firm base on which the __can move.  

stabilize 

tongue

146

Muscles of the neck that move the head 

e head articulates with the vertebral column at joints formed by the ____________& ____________bone. 

atlas & occipital

147

An important landmark (the ____________muscle) divides the sides of the neck into two major triangles: anterior and posterior

Sternocleidomastoid 

148

Muscles of the neck that move the head (5)

sternocleidomastoid

semispinalis capitis

splenius capitis

longissimus capitis

spinalis capitis

149

Muscles of the Abdomen (protect the viscera and move the vertebral column) 

The ____________abdominal wall includes the external oblique, internal oblique, and ____________abdominis muscles which form 3 protective layers around the abdomen

anterolateral 

transversus 

150

The aponeuroses of the external & internal oblique & transversus abdominis form the ____________ which enclose the?

rectus sheaths

rectus abdominis muscles

151

the rectus sheaths form the ___ ___

linea alba

a connective tissue band extending from the xiphoid process to the pubic symphysis

152

Muscles of the Thorax that Assist in Breathing (3) 

1) diaphragm

2) external intercostals

3) internal intercostals

153

most important respiratory muscle

diaphragm

154

Muscles of the Pelvic Floor (3)

Levator Ani (pubococcygeus & iliococcygeus) 

Ischiococcygeus

155

the levator ani & ischiococcygeus together with the fascia covering their internal & external surfaces are referred to as the?

pelvic diaphragm

156

 a diamond-shaped area inferior to the pelvic diaphragm that extends from the pubic symphysis anteriorly, to the coccyx posteriorly, and to the ischial tuberosities laterally. 

perineum

157

(2) layers of perineal muscles

1) deep 

2) superficial

158

superficial perineal muscles (3) 

superficial transverse perineal

bulbospongiosus

ischiocavernosus 

159

Deep muscles of perineum (5) 

deep transverse perineal

external anal sphincter

compressor urethrae

sphincter urethrovaginalis

external anal sphincter

160

 deep muscles of the perineum assist in ?

urination and ejaculation in males and urination and compression of the vagina in females

161

    
 
Muscles of the Thorax that Move the Pectoral Girdle 

(2) groups

1) anterior thoracic muscles

2) posterior thoracic muscles

162

1) anterior thoracic muscles

 

subclavius

pectoralis minor

serratus anterior

163

2) posterior thoracic muscles (4) 

trapezius 

levator scapulae 

rhomboid major 

rhomboid minor 

164

Axial muscles that move humerus (2) 

pectoralis major

latissimus dorsi

165

scapular muscles that move humerus (7) 

deltoid

subscapularis

supraspinatus

infraspinatus

teres major 

teres minor

corachobrachialis

166

7 of 9 muscles that cross shoulder joint originate on the scapula except...

this is why they are called axial muscles

latissimus dorsi & pectoralis major

167

(4) deep muscles of shoulder form the rotator cuff 

subscapularis 

supraspinatus

infraspinatus

teres minor

168

forearm flexors

biceps brachii

brachialis

brachioradialis

169

forearm extensors (2) 

triceps brachii

anconeus

170

forearm pronators

pronator teres 

pronator quadratus

171

forearm supinator 

supinator

172

Muscles of forearm (move wrist, hand thumb & digits) 

(2) groups (2 in each) 

anterior (flexor) - superior & deep

posterior (extensor) - superior & deep

173

superficial anterior (flexor) compartment

flexor carpi radialis

palmaris longus

flexor carpi ulnaris 

flexor digitorum superficialis

 

174

deep anterior (flexor) compartment

flexor pollicis longus

flexor digitorum profundus

175

superficial posterior (extensor) compartment

extensor carpi radialis long

extensor carpi radialis brevis 

extensor digitorum

extensor digitorum minimi

extensor carpi ulnaris 

176

deep posterior (extensor) compartment

abductor pollicis longus

extensor pollicis longus

extensor pollicis brevis

extensor indicis

177

Intrinsic muscles of the hand (palm) (move digits)

(3) groups

thenar (lateral)

hypothenar (medial) 

intermediate (midpalmar) 

178

thenar eminance formed by?

thenar muscles + adductor pollicis

179

thenar (lateral aspect of palm) muscles 

abductor pollicis brevis

opponens pollicis

flexor pollicis brevis

adductor pollicis

 

180

hypothenar (medial aspect of palm) muscles

abductor digiti minimi 

flexor digiti minimi brevis

opponens digiti minimi

181

intermediate (midpalmar) 

lumbricals 

palmar interossei

dorsal interossei

182

Muscles of the Neck and Back that Move the Vertebral Column 

Splenius

Erector spinae (iliocostal, longissimus, spinalis) 

transversospinales 

segmental

scalenes

183

Erector spinae group

 

 3 columns muscle

from sacrum to ribs extends vertebral column 

184

 Semispinalis group 

 vertebrae to vertebrae

 extends neck 

185

Multifidis

vertebrae to vertebrae 

rotates vertebral column

186

quadratus lumborum 

ilium to 12th rib

lateral flexion

187

muscles of the back (4) 

erector spinae group

semispinalis group 

multifidis

quadratus lumborum

188

muscles of the gluteal region that move the femur

iliopsoas (psoas major & iliacus) 

gluteus maximus, medius &  minimus

tensor fascia latae

piriformis

obturator internus & externus

superior & inferior gemellus

quadratus femoris

adductor longus, brevis & magnus

pectineus

 

189

Muscles of the thigh 

(3) compartments 

1) medial (adduction) 

2) anterior (extensor) 

3) posterior (flexor) - flex & extend thigh

190

Muscles of the leg that move the foot & toes 

(3) compartments 

1) anterior - dorsiflex foot

2) lateral (fibular) - plantar flex & evert

3) posterior (superior & deep

191

Intrinsic muscles of the foot that move the toes 

(2) groups

1) dorsal 

2) plantar

192

There is only ____________dorsal muscle which extends toes 2–5 at the MTP joints. 

2

193

Plantar muscles are arranged in __layers with the most superficial of these called the first layer, etc. 

4