Chapter 1 - Intro Flashcards Preview

KIN 260 > Chapter 1 - Intro > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 1 - Intro Deck (90):
1

 

Two branches of science that deal with body’s parts and function 

 

 

Anatomy & Physiology

2

Anatomy

 

The science of body structures and relationships

- First studies by dissection (cutting apart)
- Imaging techniques 

 

3

Physiology

 

The science of body functions 

 

4

Basic Life Processes (6)

1) metabolism

2) responsiveness

3) movement

4) growth

5) differentiation

6) reproduction

5

Descriptions of the human body assume a specific stance - Anatomical position (6) 

 

 

 


 

body upright

standing erect facing observer 

head & eyes facing forward

feet are flat on the floor & forward

upper limbs to sides

palms turned forward

6

Terms for a reclining body (2) 

1) prone

2) supine

7

Prone position

body is lying face down

8

Supine position

body is lying face up

9



 

Directional Terms 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


describe the?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

position of one body part relative to another 

group in pairs with opposite meaning

10

Directional Terms for front & back 

anterior (front) view

posterior (back) view

11

 


 

___________ Nearer to the front of the body

 

 

anterior

12

___________Nearer to the back of the body

 

posterior

13

___________Toward the head

 

superior

14

___________Away from the head 

inferior

15

 


 

___________Nearer to the attachment of a limb to the trunk

 

 

proximal

16

___________Farther from the attachment of a limb to the trunk

 

distal

17

___________Farther from the midline

 

lateral

18

___________Nearer to the midline 

medial

19

____ between 2 structures

intermediate 

20

__________ same side as another structure

ipsilateral

21

__________ opposite side as another structure

contralateral

22

__________ toward or on surface of body

superficial (external)

23

________away from surface of body

deep (internal)

24

Most Principal Regions (5)

Head

Neck

Trunk

Upper Limbs

Lower Limbs

25

Head Region

skull & face

26

Neck Region

 

Supports the head and attaches to trunk 

 

27

Trunk Region

chest, abdomen, pelvis

28

Upper Limb Region

attaches to trunk (shoulder, armpit & arm)

29

Lower Limb Region

attaches to trunk (buttock, thigh, leg, ankle & foot)

30

Planes

imaginary flat surfaces that pass through the body parts 

31

32

Sagittal plane

a vertical plane that divides the body into right & left sides 

33

 

Midsagittal plane

 divides body into equal right and left sides
 

34

 

Parasagittal plane 

divides body into unequal right and left sides 
 

35

Frontal or Coronal plane

 

Divides the body or an organ into anterior (front) and posterior (back) portions 

 

36

Transverse plane

 

Divides the body or an organ into superior (upper) and inferior (lower) portions

 Also called cross-sectional or horizontal plane 

 

37

Oblique plane

 

Passes through the body or an organ at an angle Between transverse and sagittal plane
Between transverse and frontal plane 

  

 

38

Sections

cut of the body made along a plane

39

Body Cavities

 

Spaces within the body that help protect, separate, and support internal organs 

 

40

(3) Body Cavities 

 

1) Cranial cavity

2) Thoracic cavity
3) Abdominopelvic cavity 

 

41

Cranial Cavity is continuous with the?

Both are lined by the?

vertebral canal 

Meninges 

42

Cranial cavity 

- formed by?

 

- formed by the cranial bones

- protects the brain

43

Vertebral Canal

- formed by?

- contains?

bones of vertebral column - backbone

contains the spinal cord

44

Meninges

3 layers of protective tissue that line the cranial cavity vertebral canal 

45

Thoracic Cavity

aka?

formed by?

chest cavity

ribs

muscles of chest

sternum (breastbone)

vertebral column (thoracic portion)

46

Within the thoracic cavity....(4) 

1) pericardial cavity

2) pleural cavity 

3) mediastinum 

4) diaphragm 

47

Pericardial cavity

fluid-filled space that surrounds the heart

48

Pleural cavity

Two fluid-filled spaces that that surround each lung 

 

49

Mediastinum

• Central part of the thoracic cavity 
Between lungs 
• Extending from the sternum to the vertebral column 
First rib to the diaphragm

50

Diaphragm 

dome shaped muscle 

separates thoracic cavity from abdominopelvic cavity

51

Abdominopelvic Cavity

extends from?

encircled by?

divided into?

extends from diaphragm to groin

encircled by abdominal wall + bones & muscle of pelvis

divided into abdominal pelvic cavity

52

Abdominal cavity

Stomach, spleen, liver, gallbladder, small and large intestines 

53

Pelvic cavity

Urinary bladder, internal organs of reproductive system, and portions of  the large intestine 

 

54

Which of the 2 portions of the Abdominopelvic cavity is the

a) superior portion

b) inferior portion

a) Abdominal 

b) Pelvic

55

Viscera

Organs of the thoracic and abdominal pelvic cavities

56

Serous membrane

a thin slippery membrane that covers the 
viscera

57

Parts of the serous membrane (2) 

1) Parietal layer 

2) Visceral layer 

58

Thoracic & Abdominal Cavity Membranes (3) 

1) Pleura 

2) Pericardium

3) Peritoneum

59

Pleura

serous membrane of the pleural cavities 

60

Pericardium

serous membrane of the pericardial cavity

61

Peritoneum

serous membrane of the abdominal cavity

62

(2) types of Pleura 

1) Visceral pleura 

2) Parietal pleura 

63

1) Visceral pleura 

2) Parietal pleura 

1) clings to surface of lungs

2) lines the chest wall

64

(2) types of Pericardium

1) Visceral pericardium

2) Parietal pericardium

 

65

1) Visceral pericardium

2) Parietal pericardium

1) covers heart

2) lines chest wall

66

(2) types of Peritoneum

1) Visceral peritoneum

2) Parietal peritoneum

67

1) Visceral peritoneum

2) Parietal peritoneum

1) covers abdominal cavity (viscera) 

2) lines the abdominal wall 

68

Retroperitoneal 

between parietal peritoneum & posterior abdominal wall

 

69

Other Cavities 

1) oral cavity

2) nasal cavity

3) orbital cavities 

4) middle ear cavities

5) synovial cavities 

70

Oral cavity

mouth

tongue & teeth

71

Nasal cavity

nose

72

Orbital cavities 

(orbits) 

eyeball

73

Middle Ear cavities

small bones of the middle ear 

74

Tic-Tac-Toe Region

 

Abdominopelvic Regions 

Used to describe the location of abdominal and pelvic organs 

2 horizontal & 2 vertical lines partition the cavity

 

75

Tic-Tac-Toe Grid

2 horizontal & 2 vertical lines partition cavity

(3) lines

1) subcostal line  - top horizontal 

2) transtubercular line - bottom horizontal 

3) midclavicular line - 2 vertical lines

76

1) subcostal line  - top horizontal 

2) transtubercular line - bottom horizontal 

3) midclavicular line - 2 vertical lines

1) inferior to rib cage

2) inferior to top of hip bone

3) midpoints to clavicles & medial to nipples 

77

(9) abdominopelvic regions 

right hypochondriac           epigastric                       left hypochondriac 

right lumbar                           umbilical                              left lumbar

right inguinal (iliac)        hypogastric (pubic)            left inguinal (iliac)

78

(2) methods of dividing abdominal cavity into smaller areas

1) Tic-Tac-Toe Grid

2) Quadrants 

79

2nd method -  Quadrants 

(2) lines

midsagittal line + tranverse line 

80

method 2: Quadrant method

vertical & horizontal lines pass through umbilicus (belly-button)

Right upper         Left upper

Right lower          Left lower

81

Medical Imaging

Techniques & procedures used to create images of the human body

Allow visualization of structures inside the body 
Diagnosis of anatomical and physiological disorders 
Conventional radiography (X-rays) have been in use since the late 1940’s

82

Radiography

 

produce image of interior structures 
Inexpensive & quick 
Hollow structures appear black or gray 
• Do not pass easily through dense structure (bone) 
 - At low dose, useful for soft tissue (breast) 

 

 - Mammography (breast) 
 - Bone densitometry (bone density) 

 

83

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) 

 

• High energy magnetic field 
        - Protons in body fluid align with field 
Color image on a video monitor 
         -  2D and 3D blueprint 
• Relatively safe procedure 
-  Not used on patients containing metal 
• Used for differentiating normal and abnormal tissues 
- Tumors, brain abnormalities, blood flow 

 

84




Computed Tomography 




 

Computer-Assisted radiography (CT-Scan)

3-D structures

- Visualize soft tissue in more detail than conventional radiography

- Tissue intensities show varying degrees of gray
-  Whole-body CT scan

          - Lung & kidney cancers, coronary artery disease 

 

85

 

Ultrasound Scanning

 

• High frequency sound waves 

     - Sonogram

     - Noninvasive, painless, no dyes 

     - Pregnancy (fetus) 

86

 

Radionuclide Scanning


 

 

Radioactive substance (radionuclide) given intravenously

Gamma rays detected by camera

Radionuclide image displays on video monitor

Color intensity represents uptake

Single-photo-emission computerized tomography (SPECT)

 Specialized technique used for brain, heart, lungs, and liver 

87

 

Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

 

Positron (positively charged particles) emitting substance injected into the body
  - Collision between positrons and negatively charged electron in body tissues

  -  Gamma rays produced

   - Computer constructed a PET scan image in color
   - Used to study physiology of body structures (metabolism) 
 

88

Endoscopy 

(3) types

1) colonoscopy

2) laparoscopy

3) arthroscopy

89

Endoscopy

uses?

Endoscope - lighted instrument with lens

image projected onto a monitor

90