Chapter 24 - Digestive System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 24 - Digestive System Deck (69)
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1

(2) groups of organs compose digestive system

Gastrointestinal (GI) tract 

Accessory digestive organs

2

Gastrointestinal (GI) tract 

 

mouth, most of pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine & large intestine

 

 

3

Accessory digestive organs

teeth, tongue, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder & pancreas

4

(6) functions of digestive system

ingestion 

secretion of water, acid, buffers & enzymes into lumen

mixing & propulsion 

digestion (mechanical & chemical) 

absorption

defecation

5

(4) LAYERS of GI Tract

Mucosa

Submucosa

Muscularis

Serosa

 

6

Mucosa - inner lining 

epithelium - protection, secretion & absorption

lamina propria - CT with blood & lymphatic vessels & MALT

muscularis mucosae - thin layer of folded smooth muscle 

7

Submucosa

CT binding mucosa to muscularis

contains many blood & lymphatic vessels

submucosal plexus - network of neurons

8

Muscularis

voluntary skeletal muscle in pharynx, mouth, upper 2/3 of esophagus & anal sphincter 

involuntary smooth muscle elsewhere 

arranged in inner circular fibers outer longitudinal fibers 

myenteric plexus between muscle layers

 

9

Serosa

outermost covering of organs suspended in abdominopelvic cavity

also called visceral peritoneum

esophagus lacks serosa - has adventitia 

10

Neural Innervation (2) 

Enteric Nervous system 

Autonomic nervous system

11

enteric nervous sytem 

intrinsic set of nerves - "brain of gut"

neurons extending from esophagus to anus 

(2) plexuses

myenteric (GI tract motility) 

- submucosal (controlling secretions) 

12

Autonomic Nervous system

extrinsic set of nerves

Parasympathetic stimulation - increases secretion & activity by stimulating ENS

Sympathetic stimulation - decreases secretion & activity by inhibiting ENS

13

Peritoneum

divided into? (2) 

largest serous membrane of body

parietal - lines wall of cavity

visceral (aka serosa) - covers organs 

 

14

(5) major peritoneal folds

greater omentum

falciform ligament

lesser omentum

mesentery 

mesocolon

15

Oral Cavity 

formed by?

cheeks, hard & soft palates & tongue 

 

16

Oral cavity proper

space from gums & teeth to fauces (opening between oral cavity & oropharynx) 

 

17

(3) pairs of major salivary glands secrete most of saliva

parotid

submandibular

sublingual

18

Salivation controlled by?

parasympathetic stimulation

sympathetic stimulation

ANS 

parasympathetic stimulation - promotes secretion

sympathetic stimulation - decreases salivation

19

Teeth - (3) major regions 

crown 

root 

neck 

20

Dentin of crown covered by ___

enamel

 

21

2 sets of teeth 

deciduous (baby teeth) 

permanent teeth 

 

22

Mechanical Digestion in mouth

chewing

tongue, teeth, saliva

forms bolus

 

23

Chemical Digestion

salivary amylase - secreted by salivary glands acts on starches

inactived by stomach acid

lingual lipase - secreted by lingual glands of tongue acts on triglycerides 

activated in acidic environment of stomach

24

Pharynx 

(3) parts 

food passes from mouth into pharynx

nasopharynx - respiration

oropharynx - digestive & respiratory

laryngopharynx - digestive & respiratory

25

Esophagus 

secretes mucous, transports food - no enzymes produced, no absorption

26

Esophagus 

1) mucosa

2) submucosa

3) muscularis 

4) adventitia

1) protection against wear & tear

2) ---

3) divided into third

superior - skeletal

middle - skeletal & smooth

inferior - smooth

2 sphincters 

27

(2) sphincters in esophagus muscularis 

Upper esophageal sphincter (UES) - regulates movement into esophagus

Lower esophageal sphincter (LES) - regulates movement into stomach

28

Swallowing involves (3) 

(3) stages

mouth, pharynx, esophagus

voluntary - bolus → oropharynx

pharyngeal - pharynx → esophagus

esophageal - esophagus → stomach 

29

Stomach

(4) main regions

cardia

fundus

body 

pyloric part - pyloric antrum, pyloric canal, pylorus 

30

Stomach mucosa

gastric glands open into gastric pits 

(3) types of exocrine gland cells 

- mucous neck cells, parietal cells, chief cells (pepsinogen & gastric lipase) 

G cell - endocrine cell - secretes gastrin