Chapter 26 - Urinary System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 26 - Urinary System Deck (60):
1

Kidney functions (8) 

Regulation of: 

blood ionic composition, pH, volume, pressure, glucose level 

Maintenance of blood osmolarity

Production of hormons (calcitrol & erythropoitin)

Excretion of wastes from metabolic reactions & foreign substances 

2

External Anatomy of Kidneys 

Renal Hilum 

3 layers of tissue 

3

Renal Hilum

(3) layers of tissue

- indent where ureter emerges along with blood & lymphatic vessels & nerves 

1) renal capsule

2) adipose capsule

3) renal fascia

 

4

1) renal capsule

2) adipose capsule

3) renal fascia

 

1) deep layer - continous with coat of ureter, barrier against trauma & maintains kidney shape

2) mass of fatty tissue, protects kidney from trauma & holds it in place

3) superficial layer - thin layer of CT that anchors kidney to surrounding structures & abdominal wall

5

Kidney - position, weight & size

retroperitoneal 

level of T12 to L3

160g each 

size of bar of soap

6

Kidney shape

lateral surface - convex

medial border- concave: faces vertebral column 

- renal hilum near center

 

7

Connective tissue coverings 

1) renal capsule (deep)

2) adipose capsule 

3) renal fascia (superficial)

1) encloses kidney like cellophane wrap

2) cushions kidney

3) binds to abdominnal wall

 

8

(2) distinct regions of kidney

 

superficial, light red - Renal cortex

deep, darker reddish-brown - Renal medulla 

9

Renal Cortex 

extends from?

consists of

 

superficial 

extends from renal capsule to bases of renal pyramids 

divided into (2) zones

renal columns 

10

(2) zones of renal cortex

Outer cortical zone 

Inner juxtamedullary zone

11

Renal cortex

- renal columns 

portions of renal cortex that extend between renal pyramids 

12

Renal Medulla - inner region

consists of?

several cone-shaped renal pyramids 

base (wider end) faces renal cortex, 

apex (narrow end) = renal papilla - points toward renal hilum

13

Renal lobe

consists of renal pyramid, overlying area of renal cortex & 1/of each adjacent renal column

14

Parenchyma of kidneys = ?

FUNCTIONAL PORTION OF KIDNEYS 

renal cortex + renal pyramids of renal medulla

15

Nephrons

microscopic functional unit of kidney

16

filtered fluid formed by nephrons drains into?

large papillary ducts - extend through renal papillae of renal pyramids 

17

Flow of filtered fluid from nephrons 

→ papillary ducts → minor calyces (8-18) → major calyces (2-3) → renal pelvis  → ureter → urinary bladder

18

When does filtrate become urine? why?

once filtrate enters calyces

because no further reabsorption can occur 

b/c simple epithelium of nephron & ducts becomes transitional epithelium in calyces

19

Renal sinus

cavity within kidneys that hilum expands into 

contains part of renal pelvis, calyces, branches of renal blood vessels & nerves 

20

Although kidneys constitute less than 0.5% of total body mass, they 
receive 20-25 % of resting cardiac output via?

 

right & left renal arteries 

21

Within kidneys, renal arteries divide into...

segmental arteries →interlobar → arcuate → interlobular→ afferent arterioles → glomerulus → efferent arteriole→ peritubular capillaries + vasa recta  → peritubular venules→  interlobular veins →arcuate  → interlobar →renal vein

22

each ___ recieves one afferent arteriole, which divides into tangled ball-shaped capillary network called ___?

glomerulus 

23

LOCATION OF:

1) segmental arteries →

2) interlobar →

3) arcuate →

4) interlobular →  

5) afferent arterioles →

6) glomerulus 

1) within kidney 

2) in parenchyma, through renal columns, b/w renal pyramids

3) base of renal pyamid, arch b/w medulla & cortex 

4) pass b/w renal lobules 

5) renal cortex 

6) nephron recieves 1 afferent arteriole which divides into glomerulus 

 

24

Glomerular capillaries reunite to form efferent arterioles which divide to form → __ __ → __ _→_ _→___→__→__ ___  → __ ___ __

extending from some efferent arterioles are ___ ___ 

 

efferent arteriole → peritubular capillaries (surround tubular part of nephrons in cortex)→ peritubular venules → interlobar veins → arcuate → interlobar → renal vein → exits through renal hilum → inferior vena cava 

vasa recta - long loop-shaped capillaries that support tubular portions of nephron in medulla 

25

Renal nerves are part of the ___ ___ nervous system

most are __ nerves regulating?

sympathetic autonomic

vasomotor - regulate blood flow through kidney by vasodilation/constriction of renal arterioles 

26

Nephron

- (2) parts

1) Renal corpuscle 

2) Renal tubule 

27

Parts of Nephron:

1) Renal corpuscle ​

2) Renal tubule 

1) where blood plasma is filtered

2) into which filtered fluid passes 

28

Nephron

(2) components of renal corpuscle

 

a) glomerulus 

b) glomerular (Bowman's) capsule

29

Nephron: renal corpuscle 

 

a) glomerulus 

b) glomerular (Bowman's) capsule

a) capillary network 

b) double-walled epithelial cup that surrounds glomerular capillaries 

30

Blood plasma is filtered in golumerular capsule, then passed into renal tubule.

 

(3) main sections of RENAL TUBULE 

- in order that fluid passes through them 

1) proximal convulated tubule (PCT)

2) loop of Henle (nephron loop) 

3) distal convulated tubule

31

renal corpuscle & both convulated tubules lie within ____ ___ 

Loop of Henle extends into __ __ but returns to renal cortex

renal cortex

renal medulla 

 

32

Distal convoluted tubule of several nephrons empty into?

a single collecting duct 

33

Urine flow:

Distal convoluted tubules → ? → ? ....

collecting duct → converge into 100s of papillary ducts → minor calyces 

34

collecting ducts & papillary ducts extend from? through? to?

 renal cortex through medulla to renal pelvis 

35

Loop of Henle in nephron connects?

(2) parts of Loop of Henle 

proximal & distal convoluted tubules. 

into renal medulla as 1) descending limb 

makes hairpin turn and returns to renal cortex as 

2) ascending limb

36

(2) types of Nephrons

1) Cortical 

2) Juxtamedullary

37

1) Cortical Nephron

location of renal corpuscles

Loop of Henle structure

80-85% of nephrons

renal corpuscles lie in outer portion of renal cortex (cortical zone)

short loops of Henle - mainly in cortex, penetrate only into outer region of renal medulla 

38

the short Loops of Henle in Cortical Nephrons recieve blood supply from..?

peritubular capillaries that arise from efferent arterioles 

39

Juxtamedullary nephrons

location of Renal corpuscle 

Loop of Henle structure

ascending limb

15-20% of nephrons

renal corpuscles lie deep in cortex (juxtamedullary zone)

long Loop of Henle - extends into deepest region of medulla

(2) portions off ascending limb - thin & thick 

40

Long loops of Henle in Juxtamedullary Nephrons recieve blood supply from?

peritubular capillaries & vasa recta that arrise from efferent arterioles 

41

Histology of Glomerular capsule

(2) layers

1) parietal layer

2) visceral layer

42

Glomerular Capsule

1) parietal layer

2) visceral layer

1) simple squamous epithelium - outer wall 

2) modified simple squamous epithelium = podocytes that wrap projections around single layer of endothelial cells of glomerular capillaries 

- inner wall

43

Fluid filtered from glomerular capillaries enters...

Glomerular (Bowman's) space - space between 2 layers of glomerular capsule (lumen of urinary tube)

44

Histology of Renal Tubule & Collecting duct

- PROXIMAL CONVOLUTED TUBULE

simple cuboidal epithelial cells 

prominent brush borderof microvilli on surface facing lumen

45

Histology of Renal Tubule & Collecting duct

DESCENDING & 1ST PART OF ASCENDING LIMB OF LOOP OF HENLE (THIN)

 

 

descending & thin ascending - simple squamous epithelium

thick - simple cuboidal to low columnar epithelium 

46

Macula densa

 area of closely packed specialized cells lining the wall of the distal convoluted tubule/final part of ascending loop of henle

47

Juxtamedullary cells 

modified smooth muscle fibers in walls of afferent (& sometimes efferent) arterioles alongside macula densa

48

Juxtamedullary Apparatus

macula densa + juxtamedullary cells

- help regulate blood pressure in kidney 

49

In the last part of the Distal Convoluted Tubule & continuing into collecting ducts, 

(2) different types of cells are present

1) principal cells - receptors for antidiuretic hormone (ADH) & aldosterone (2 hormones that regulate their functions) 

2) intercalated cells - play a role in homeostasis of blood pH 

 

50

(3) basic processes performed by nephrons & collecting ducts to produce urine

1) GLOMERULAR FILTRATION

2) TUBULAR REABSORPTION 

3) TUBULAR SECRETION

51

1) GLOMERULAR FILTRATION 

2) TUBULAR REABSORPTION

3) TUBULAR SECRETION

1) water & solutes in blood plasma move across wall of glomerular capillaries, filtered → move into glomerular capsule → renal tubule

2) as filtered fluid flows through renal tubules → collecting ducts - tubule cells reabsorb 99% of filtered water & other solutes which return to blood as it flows through peritubular capillaries & vasa recta 

3) as filtered fluid from renal tubules + collecting ducts, renal tubule & duct cells secrete other materials (waste, drugs, xs ions) into fluid 

 

 

52

solutes in fluid that drain into renal pelvis remain in fluid and are ___ as ___ 

excreted as urine

53

Excretion of any solute = ?

glomerular filtration  - reabsoprtion + secretion

54

Urinary bladder

hollow ditensible muscular organ

capacity: 700-800 mL

55

Micturition

discharge of urine from urinary bladder 

aka urination

56

Urination/Micturition involves combination of?

voluntary & involuntary muscle contractions 

57

When volume of urine in urinary bladder exceeds 200-400 mL, pressure increases &...

stretch receptors in wall transmit nerve impulses into spinal cord → micturition center in S2 & S3 → trigger (spinal reflex) micturition reflex → parasympathetic impulses to urinary bladder & internal urethral sphincter → contraction of detrusor, relaxation of internal urethral sphincter + inhibition of somatic motor neurons  in external urethral sphincter

58

External urethral orifice 

between clitoris & vaginal orifice

59

Internal urethral sphincter

detrusor muscle thickened, smooth muscle, involuntary control

60