Chapter 26 - Urinary System Flashcards Preview

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1

Kidney functions (8) 

Regulation of: 

blood ionic composition, pH, volume, pressure, glucose level 

Maintenance of blood osmolarity

Production of hormons (calcitrol & erythropoitin)

Excretion of wastes from metabolic reactions & foreign substances 

2

External Anatomy of Kidneys 

Renal Hilum 

3 layers of tissue 

3

Renal Hilum

(3) layers of tissue

- indent where ureter emerges along with blood & lymphatic vessels & nerves 

1) renal capsule

2) adipose capsule

3) renal fascia

 

4

1) renal capsule

2) adipose capsule

3) renal fascia

 

1) deep layer - continous with coat of ureter, barrier against trauma & maintains kidney shape

2) mass of fatty tissue, protects kidney from trauma & holds it in place

3) superficial layer - thin layer of CT that anchors kidney to surrounding structures & abdominal wall

5

Kidney - position, weight & size

retroperitoneal 

level of T12 to L3

160g each 

size of bar of soap

6

Kidney shape

lateral surface - convex

medial border- concave: faces vertebral column 

- renal hilum near center

 

7

Connective tissue coverings 

1) renal capsule (deep)

2) adipose capsule 

3) renal fascia (superficial)

1) encloses kidney like cellophane wrap

2) cushions kidney

3) binds to abdominnal wall

 

8

(2) distinct regions of kidney

 

superficial, light red - Renal cortex

deep, darker reddish-brown - Renal medulla 

9

Renal Cortex 

extends from?

consists of

 

superficial 

extends from renal capsule to bases of renal pyramids 

divided into (2) zones

renal columns 

10

(2) zones of renal cortex

Outer cortical zone 

Inner juxtamedullary zone

11

Renal cortex

- renal columns 

portions of renal cortex that extend between renal pyramids 

12

Renal Medulla - inner region

consists of?

several cone-shaped renal pyramids 

base (wider end) faces renal cortex, 

apex (narrow end) = renal papilla - points toward renal hilum

13

Renal lobe

consists of renal pyramid, overlying area of renal cortex & 1/of each adjacent renal column

14

Parenchyma of kidneys = ?

FUNCTIONAL PORTION OF KIDNEYS 

renal cortex + renal pyramids of renal medulla

15

Nephrons

microscopic functional unit of kidney

16

filtered fluid formed by nephrons drains into?

large papillary ducts - extend through renal papillae of renal pyramids 

17

Flow of filtered fluid from nephrons 

→ papillary ducts → minor calyces (8-18) → major calyces (2-3) → renal pelvis  → ureter → urinary bladder

18

When does filtrate become urine? why?

once filtrate enters calyces

because no further reabsorption can occur 

b/c simple epithelium of nephron & ducts becomes transitional epithelium in calyces

19

Renal sinus

cavity within kidneys that hilum expands into 

contains part of renal pelvis, calyces, branches of renal blood vessels & nerves 

20

Although kidneys constitute less than 0.5% of total body mass, they 
receive 20-25 % of resting cardiac output via?

 

right & left renal arteries 

21

Within kidneys, renal arteries divide into...

segmental arteries →interlobar → arcuate → interlobular→ afferent arterioles → glomerulus → efferent arteriole→ peritubular capillaries + vasa recta  → peritubular venules→  interlobular veins →arcuate  → interlobar →renal vein

22

each ___ recieves one afferent arteriole, which divides into tangled ball-shaped capillary network called ___?

glomerulus 

23

LOCATION OF:

1) segmental arteries →

2) interlobar →

3) arcuate →

4) interlobular →  

5) afferent arterioles →

6) glomerulus 

1) within kidney 

2) in parenchyma, through renal columns, b/w renal pyramids

3) base of renal pyamid, arch b/w medulla & cortex 

4) pass b/w renal lobules 

5) renal cortex 

6) nephron recieves 1 afferent arteriole which divides into glomerulus 

 

24

Glomerular capillaries reunite to form efferent arterioles which divide to form → __ __ → __ _→_ _→___→__→__ ___  → __ ___ __

extending from some efferent arterioles are ___ ___ 

 

efferent arteriole → peritubular capillaries (surround tubular part of nephrons in cortex)→ peritubular venules → interlobar veins → arcuate → interlobar → renal vein → exits through renal hilum → inferior vena cava 

vasa recta - long loop-shaped capillaries that support tubular portions of nephron in medulla 

25

Renal nerves are part of the ___ ___ nervous system

most are __ nerves regulating?

sympathetic autonomic

vasomotor - regulate blood flow through kidney by vasodilation/constriction of renal arterioles 

26

Nephron

- (2) parts

1) Renal corpuscle 

2) Renal tubule 

27

Parts of Nephron:

1) Renal corpuscle ​

2) Renal tubule 

1) where blood plasma is filtered

2) into which filtered fluid passes 

28

Nephron

(2) components of renal corpuscle

 

a) glomerulus 

b) glomerular (Bowman's) capsule

29

Nephron: renal corpuscle 

 

a) glomerulus 

b) glomerular (Bowman's) capsule

a) capillary network 

b) double-walled epithelial cup that surrounds glomerular capillaries 

30

Blood plasma is filtered in golumerular capsule, then passed into renal tubule.

 

(3) main sections of RENAL TUBULE 

- in order that fluid passes through them 

1) proximal convulated tubule (PCT)

2) loop of Henle (nephron loop) 

3) distal convulated tubule