Chapter 23 - Respiratory System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 23 - Respiratory System Deck (38):
1

Upper Respiratory System

nose, pharynx & associated structures

2

Lower respiratory system

larynx, trachea, bronchi & lungs 

3

Respiratory System Anatomy

structurally?

functionally?

structurally: upper & lower respiratory system

Functionally: conducting & respiratory zone

4

Conducting zone

conducts air to lungs 

- nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles & terminal bronchioles

5

Respiratory zone

main site of gas exchange

- respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs & alveoli

6

Nose 

(2) parts

External nose

Internal nose

7

External nose

visible portion on face

8

Internal nose

consists of?

ducts from __(2)__ open into internal nose

large cavity beyond nasal vestibule (just inside nostrils)

nasal cavity opens into pharynx through internal nares (choanae) and 

ducts from paranasal sinuses and nasolacrimal ducts open into nasal cavity 

 

9

Nasal cavity is divided by? subdivided by? into?

 

nasal septum

nasal conchae 

meatuses 

10

Pharynx 

posterior to nasal & oral cavities, above larynx, anterior to cervical vertebrae 

 

11

Pharynx

- starts at? extends to?

internal nares to cricoid cartilage of larynx 

assists in swallowing

12

Functions of Pharynx

1) passageway for air & food

2) resonating chamber

3) houses tonsils 

13

14

(3) regions of Pharynx 

1) nasopharynx

2) oropharynx

3) laryngopharynx

15

Larynx 

composed of?

short passageway connecting laryngopharynx with trachea

 9 pieces of cartilage

 

16

9 pieces of cartilage in Larynx

thyroid - adam's apple

cricoid -hallmark for tracheotomy

epiglottis - closes off glottis during swallowing

17

Glottis

pairs of folds of mucous membrane

closed off by epiglottis during swallowing 

18

Cilia in 

1) upper resp. tract

2) lower resp. tract

1) move mucous & trapped particles down toward pharynx

2) move mucous & trapped particles up toward pharynx 

19

Trachea 

extends from larynx to superior border of T5 

divides into right & left primary bronchi

 

20

Trachea

consists of...

- (4) layers 

 

16-20 C-shaped rings of hyaline cartilage 

open part faces esophagus 

mucosa 

submucosa 

hyaline cartilage

adventitia 

21

Bronchi

- carina

right & left primary bronchus goes to lungs 

- internal ridge dividing bronchi 

22

primary bronchi → ??

secondary lobar bronchi → tertiary (segmental) → bronchioles → terminal bronchioles 

23

Structural changes with branching in Bronchial tree

mucous membrane changes 

incomplete rings becomes plates & then disappear

cartilage decreases & smooth muscle increases 

 

24

1) Sympathetic ANS 

2) Parasympathetic ANS 

1) relaxation/dilation 

2) contraction/constriction

25

Lungs

separated by? 

each lung enclosed by?

heart

double-layered pleural membrane 

26

double-layered pleural membrane of lungs

parietal layer - lines wall of thoracic cavity

visceral layer - covers lungs 

pleural cavity is space between lungs and filled with pleural fluid

 

27

Anatomy of Lungs

lobes - each lung divides by 1 or 2 fissures 

lobule wrapped in elastic CT & contains lymphatic vessel, arteriole, venule & branch from terminal bronchiole

28

terminal bronchioles branch into... which divide into ?

respiratory bronchioles 

alveolar ducts → sacs → alveoli

29

Alveoli

(2) types of alveolar epithelial cells

cup-shaped outpouching 

Type 1 - main site of gas exchange 

Type 2 - surfactant in alveolar fluid reduces tendency to collapse

 

30

Alveolus - respiratory membrane

extends from alveolar air space to blood plasma, respiratory membrane consists of (4) layers...

1) alveolar wall - type 1 & type 2 alveolar cells

2) epithelial basement membrane 

3) capillary basement membrane

4) capillary endothelium 

31

Lungs recieve blood from?

pulmonary artery - deoxygenated blood

bronchial arteries - oxygenated blood to perfuse muscular walls of bronchi & bronchioles

32

Pulmonary Ventilation 

- (3) respiratory (gas exchange) steps 

1) pulmonary ventilation/breathing- inhalation & exhalation involves exchange of air between atmosphere & alveoli of lungs

2) External (pulmonary) respiration - exchange of gases between alveoli & blood 

3) Internal (tissue) respiration - exchange of gases between systemic capillaries & tissue cells

supplies cellular respration (makes ATP)

33

For air to flow into lungs...

Pressure: alveoli < Patm

- achieved by increasing size of lungs

34

Inhalation

lungs expand, increasing volume & decreasing pressure below Patm

35

Most important muscle of inhalation

diaphragm 

36

When inhalation is active - contraction of (2) 

1) diaphragm 

2) external intercostals 

37

as lung volume increases, __ (____) pressure drops

alveolar (intrapulmonic) pressure

38

Exhalation

pressure in lungs greater than atmospheric pressure 

normally passive - muscles relax