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Flashcards in Chapter 5 - Integumentary System Deck (74)
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1

The organs of the integumentary system include?

skin & accessory structures including hair, nailsglands, blood vessels, muscles and nerves 
 

2

Dermatology

 

medical specialty for the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the integumentary system. 

3

Skin 

aka?

location?

size?

subcutaneous membrane

covers body 

largest organ of body by surface area & weight

4

Skin 

area & weight

% of body weight

 

2 square metres (22 sq. feet)

4.5-5 kg (10-11 lb)

7% 

5

Skin thickness 

range & average

0.5-4.0 mm thick

thinnest on eyelids

thickest on heels 

average = 1-2 mm

6

SKIN

(2) major layers 

1) epidermis - outer, thinner layer; consists of epithelial tissue

2) dermis - inner, thicker layer

7

 


 

Beneath the dermis is?

 

 

subcutaneous (subQ) layer (also called hypodermis)

which attaches the skin to underlying tissues & organs. 

8

Important characteristics of the Epidermis

(2) 

- composed of keratinized stratified squamous epithelium 

contains 4 major types of cels 

9

Epidermis

(4) major types of cells 

1) keratinocytes

2) melanocytes

3) Langerhans cells

4) Merkel cells 

10

Major cells of the epidermis: Keratinocytes

 

 


 

(90% of the cells)

produce keratin (a tough fibrous protein that provides protection)

 

 

11

Major cells of the epidermis: Melanocytes

 


 

produce the pigment melanin that protects against damage by UV radiation

 

 

12

Major cells of the epidermis: Merkel cells 

involved in immune responses, arise from red bone marrow

13

major cells of the epidermis: Merkel cells

 


 

 function in sensation of touch along with adjacent tactile discs

 

 

14

 


 

The epidermis contains how many layers?

 

 four major layers (thin skin)

five major layers (thick skin) 

15

(5) layers of the epidermis

1) stratum corneum

2) stratum lucidum

3) stratum granulosum

4) stratum spinosum

5) stratum basale

16

Stratum Basale

aka stratum germinativum

deepest layer

continuous cell division occurs which produces all other layers 

 

 

17

Stratum Spinosum

 

8-10 layers of keratinocytes 

 

Langerham cells & projections of melanocytes present 

18

Stratum Lucidum

present only in thick skin 

 


 

(the skin of the fingertips, palms, and soles) 

 

 

19

Stratum granulosum

 


 

includes keratohyalin and lamellar granules 

consists of 3 to 5 layers of flattened keratinocytes undergoing apoptosis

marks transition between deeper metabolically active strata & dead cells of superficial strata

20

Stratum corneum

 

 


 

composed of many sublayers of flat, dead keratinocytes called corneocytes or squames that are continuously shed and replaced by cells from deeper strata;

constant friction can stimulate formation of a callus

 

 

21

Formation of a callus

constant friction 

22

Keratinization

 


 

the accumulation of more and more protective keratinoccurs as cells move from the deepest layer to surface layer 

 

 

23

 


 

Dandruff 

 

- an excess of keratinized cells shed from the scalp 

24

Important characteristics of the Dermis

 


 

composed of connective tissue containing collagen & elastic fibers

contains 2 layers 

 

 

25

(2) layers of the dermis

1) Papillary region

2) Reticular region 

26

Papillary region

consists of?

containing?

outer region, consists of areolar (soft) connective tissue containing thin collagen, elastic fibers, dermal papillae (including capillary loops), corpuscles of touch & free nerve endings 

 

 

27

Reticular region

deeper region, 

 


 

consists of dense irregular connective tissue

containing collagen and elastic fibers, adipose cells, hair follicles, nerves, sebaceous (oilglands, & sudoriferous (sweat) glands 

 

28

Striae 

stretch marks 

appear if the skin is stretched too much 

 

29

Lines of Cleavage

 


 

tension lines” in the skin indicate the predominant direction of underlying collagen fibers 

 

 

30

Epidermal ridges

function?

 


 

reflect contours of the underlying dermal papillae & form the basis for fingerprints (and footprints);

function: to increase firmness of grip by increasing friction.