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1

 structural classification of joints (3) 

1) Fibrous

2) cartilaginous 

3) synovial 

2

In these joints:

1) Fibrous

2) cartilaginous 

3) synovial 

bones are held together by?

1) dense collagen fibers

2) cartilage

3) ligaments

3

 functional classification of joints (3) 

1) synarthrosis

2) amphiarthrosis

3) diarthrosis

4

1) synarthrosis

2) amphiarthrosis

3) diarthrosis

1) immovable joint

2) slightly movable joint

3) freely movable joint

5

Fibrous Joints 

lack a ___ __ 

articulating bones are held together by?

synovial cavity

dense irregular connective tissue

6

Movement in fibrous joints

permit little or no movement

7

(3) types of fibrous joints

1) sutures

2) syndesmoses

3) interosseous membranes

8

Joints that occur only between bones of the skull 

Sutures

9

Sutures 

functional classification

immovable or slightly movable 

(synarthrosis or amphiarthrosis) 

10

Syndesmoses 

fibrous joint in which there is a greater distance b/w articulating surfaces & more dense irregular connective tissue (arranged as a bundle/ligament) than in a suture

11

Syndesmoses 

functional classification

Amphiarthrosis 

12

Examples of syndesmoses

distal tibiofibular joint (amphiarthrosis)

Gomphosis (cone-shaped peg fits into socket) - articulations between teeth & their sockets (synarthrosis)  

13

Interosseous Membrane

functional classification & examples

substantial sheet of dense irregular connective tissue binds neighbouring long bones

(amphiarthrosis - slight movement) 

 

between radius and ulna

between tibia and fibula

14

Gomphosis

immovable joint 

 Joint in which a cone-shaped peg fits into a socket  Articulations of the teeth with  sockets of maxillae and mandible 

15

Cartilaginous Joints

lacks a __ __

allows what kind of movement 

joint is tightly connected by?

synovial cavity

allows little or no movement

connect by hyaline or fibrocartilage

16

(2) types of cartilaginous joints

1) synchondroses

2) symphyses 

17

1) synchondroses

connecting tissue is?

Connecting tissue is hyaline cartilage

example:  Epiphyseal (growth) plate 

immovable (synarthrosis

18

2) Symphysis

 Slightly movable joint 

occurs at midline 

 Ends of  articulating bones are covered with hyaline cartilage, but a disc of fibrocartilage connects bones 

19

Examples of Symphyses

pubis symphysis between anterior surface of hip bones 

at junction of manubrium and body of sternum

intervertebral joints between vertebrae

20

Synovial Joints 

movement 

held together by

Synovial cavity allows a joint to be freely movable 

Ligaments hold bones together in a synovial joint  

21

Unique characteristic of Synovial Joints

presence of space called a synovial (joint) cavity between articulating bones

22

Articular capsule 

sleeve-like capsule that encloses synovial cavity

has (2) layers

23

(2) layers of the articular capsule

1) outer fibrous capsule - dense irregular connective tissue attaches to periosteum 

2) inner synovial membrane - areolar connective tissue with elastic fibers 

24

Synovial fluid

secreted by synovial membrane 

25

the synovial fluid secreted by the synovial membrane

functions to ___ ___ by... (4) 

Functions to reduce friction by:

lubricating the joint

 absorbing shocks

 supplying oxygen and nutrients to the cartilage

removing carbon dioxide & metabolic wastes from cartilage 

26

Many synovial joints also contain accessory ligaments 

examples?

anterior & posterior cruciate ligaments of the knee joint

(extracapsular - outside articular capsule) 

(intracapsular - inside articular capsule)

collateral ligaments of the knee joint (fibular & tibular) 

27

Articular Disks (Menisci)

crescent-shaped pads of fibrocartilage attached to fibrous capsule between articular surfaces of bones

inside some synovial joints

28

Nerve and Blood Supply

Nerve endings:

convey information about pain from __ to  __ __ and ___ 

 Nerve endings respond to the degree of __ and __ at a joint 

Arterial branches from several different arteries merge around a joint before penetrating the ___ ___ 

joint to spinal cord and brain

movement and stretch

articular capsule

29

 Bursae 

what are they?

where are they located?

Sac-like structures containing fluid similar to synovial fluid

 Located between tendons, ligaments and bones 

 

30

Function of Bursae

cushion the movement of these body parts