Chapter 9 - Joints Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 9 - Joints Deck (105):
1

 structural classification of joints (3) 

1) Fibrous

2) cartilaginous 

3) synovial 

2

In these joints:

1) Fibrous

2) cartilaginous 

3) synovial 

bones are held together by?

1) dense collagen fibers

2) cartilage

3) ligaments

3

 functional classification of joints (3) 

1) synarthrosis

2) amphiarthrosis

3) diarthrosis

4

1) synarthrosis

2) amphiarthrosis

3) diarthrosis

1) immovable joint

2) slightly movable joint

3) freely movable joint

5

Fibrous Joints 

lack a ___ __ 

articulating bones are held together by?

synovial cavity

dense irregular connective tissue

6

Movement in fibrous joints

permit little or no movement

7

(3) types of fibrous joints

1) sutures

2) syndesmoses

3) interosseous membranes

8

Joints that occur only between bones of the skull 

Sutures

9

Sutures 

functional classification

immovable or slightly movable 

(synarthrosis or amphiarthrosis) 

10

Syndesmoses 

fibrous joint in which there is a greater distance b/w articulating surfaces & more dense irregular connective tissue (arranged as a bundle/ligament) than in a suture

11

Syndesmoses 

functional classification

Amphiarthrosis 

12

Examples of syndesmoses

distal tibiofibular joint (amphiarthrosis)

Gomphosis (cone-shaped peg fits into socket) - articulations between teeth & their sockets (synarthrosis)  

13

Interosseous Membrane

functional classification & examples

substantial sheet of dense irregular connective tissue binds neighbouring long bones

(amphiarthrosis - slight movement) 

 

between radius and ulna

between tibia and fibula

14

Gomphosis

immovable joint 

 Joint in which a cone-shaped peg fits into a socket  Articulations of the teeth with  sockets of maxillae and mandible 

15

Cartilaginous Joints

lacks a __ __

allows what kind of movement 

joint is tightly connected by?

synovial cavity

allows little or no movement

connect by hyaline or fibrocartilage

16

(2) types of cartilaginous joints

1) synchondroses

2) symphyses 

17

1) synchondroses

connecting tissue is?

Connecting tissue is hyaline cartilage

example:  Epiphyseal (growth) plate 

immovable (synarthrosis

18

2) Symphysis

 Slightly movable joint 

occurs at midline 

 Ends of  articulating bones are covered with hyaline cartilage, but a disc of fibrocartilage connects bones 

19

Examples of Symphyses

pubis symphysis between anterior surface of hip bones 

at junction of manubrium and body of sternum

intervertebral joints between vertebrae

20

Synovial Joints 

movement 

held together by

Synovial cavity allows a joint to be freely movable 

Ligaments hold bones together in a synovial joint  

21

Unique characteristic of Synovial Joints

presence of space called a synovial (joint) cavity between articulating bones

22

Articular capsule 

sleeve-like capsule that encloses synovial cavity

has (2) layers

23

(2) layers of the articular capsule

1) outer fibrous capsule - dense irregular connective tissue attaches to periosteum 

2) inner synovial membrane - areolar connective tissue with elastic fibers 

24

Synovial fluid

secreted by synovial membrane 

25

the synovial fluid secreted by the synovial membrane

functions to ___ ___ by... (4) 

Functions to reduce friction by:

lubricating the joint

 absorbing shocks

 supplying oxygen and nutrients to the cartilage

removing carbon dioxide & metabolic wastes from cartilage 

26

Many synovial joints also contain accessory ligaments 

examples?

anterior & posterior cruciate ligaments of the knee joint

(extracapsular - outside articular capsule) 

(intracapsular - inside articular capsule)

collateral ligaments of the knee joint (fibular & tibular) 

27

Articular Disks (Menisci)

crescent-shaped pads of fibrocartilage attached to fibrous capsule between articular surfaces of bones

inside some synovial joints

28

Nerve and Blood Supply

Nerve endings:

convey information about pain from __ to  __ __ and ___ 

 Nerve endings respond to the degree of __ and __ at a joint 

Arterial branches from several different arteries merge around a joint before penetrating the ___ ___ 

joint to spinal cord and brain

movement and stretch

articular capsule

29

 Bursae 

what are they?

where are they located?

Sac-like structures containing fluid similar to synovial fluid

 Located between tendons, ligaments and bones 

 

30

Function of Bursae

cushion the movement of these body parts 

31

Tendon Sheaths 

tubelike bursae that wrap around certain tendons to reduce friction at joints

32

Types of Movements at Synovial Joints 

 

(4) main categories 

1) gliding 

2) angular movements

3) rotation

4) special movements 

33

Gliding

Simple movement back-and-forth and from side-to-side 

no signicant alteration of angle between bones

limited in range

34

Example of articulation where Gliding Movement occurs

intercarpal & intertarsal joints

35

Simple movement back-and-forth and from side-to-side  There is no significant alteration of the angle between the bones

Limited in range 

Gliding Movement

36

Angular movements 

Increase or a decrease in the angle between articulating bones 

(7) types of angular movements

37

(7) types of angular movements

Flexion

 Extension

 Lateral flexion 

Hyperextension

 Abduction

Adduction

Circumduction 

38

Decrease in the angle between articulating bones 

Flexion

39

Example of Flexion

bending truck forward 

40

bending truck forward 

example of Flexion

41

Increase in angle between articulating bones

Extension

42

opposite of flexion

entension

43

movement of trunk sideways to right or left at waist 

Lateral Flexion

44

Continuation of extension beyond the normal extension 

hyperextension 

45

bending trunk backward

hyperextension

46

Movement of a bone away from the midline 

abduction

47

Moving the humerus laterally at the shoulder joint 

abduction

48

Movement of a bone toward the midline 

adduction

49

Movement that returns body parts to normal position from abduction 

adduction 

50

movement of a body part in a circle

circumduction

51

Moving the humerus in a circle at the shoulder joint 

circumduction

52

A bone revolves around its own longitudinal axis

rotation

53

 Turning the head from side to side as when you shake your head “no” 

rotation

54

(11) special movements

Elevation

Depression

Protraction

Retraction

Inversion

Eversion

Dorsiflexion

 Plantar flexion

 Supination 

Pronation

Opposition

55

Upward movement of a part of the body 

elevation

56

closing the mouth (lifting mandible) 

example of elevation

 

57

Downward movement of a part of the body 

Depression

58

opening mouth 

example of depression

59

Movement of a part of the body anteriorly 

Protraction

60

Thrusting the mandible outward 

example of protraction

61

Movement of a protracted part of the body back to normal 

retraction

62

Movement of the foot medially 

Inversion 

63

Movement of the sole laterally

Eversion

64

Bending of the foot at the ankle in an upward direction 

Dorsiflexion

65

Bending of the foot at the ankle in an downward direction 

Plantar flexion

66

 Movement of the forearm so that the palm is turned upward 

Supination

67

 Movement of the forearm so that the palm is turned downward

Pronation

68

Movement of the thumb in which the thumb moves across the palm to touch the tips of the fingers on the same hand 

Opposition

69

Synovial joints are classified based on type of ___

movement 

70

Types of synovial joints (6) 

planar

hinge

pivot

condyloid

saddle

ball-and-socket

71

 Primarily permit back-and-forth and side-to-side movements 

Planar

72

Intercarpal joints

planar joint

73

 Produce an angular, opening and closing motion

 Permit only flexion and extension 

Hinge Joint

74

Knee & Elbow Joint

Hinge Joint

75

Surface of one bone articulates with a ring formed partly by another bone 

Pivot 

76

Joints that enable the palms to turn anteriorly and posteriorly 

Pivot joints

77

 projection of one bone fits into the oval-shaped depression of another bone 

Condyloid joint

78

Wrist Joint

Condyloid

79

 Articular surface of one bone is saddle-shaped, and the articular surface of the other bone fits into the “saddle” 

Saddle Joint

80

Thumb Joint

Saddle Joint

81

 Ball-like surface of one bone fitting into a cuplike depression of another bone 

Ball-and-Socket Joint

82

Shoulder and Hip joint

Ball-and-socket joint

83

The articular surfaces of synovial joints contact one another and determine the type and possible __ ___ ___ 

 range of motion 

84

Range of Motion refers to?

 the range, measured in degrees of a circle, through which the bones of a joint can be moved 

85

Factors contribute to keeping the articular surfaces in contact and affect range of motion (6) 

1) structure of shape of articulating bones

2) strength or tension of joint ligaments

3) arrangement & tension of muscles

4) contact of soft parts 

5) hormones

6) disuse

86

1) structure of shape of articulating bones

 

Shape of bones determines how closely they fit together 

87

2) strength or tension of joint ligaments

 

Ligaments are tense when the joint is in certain positions

Tense ligaments restrict the range of motion & direct motion

 

88

3) arrangement & tension of muscles

 

Muscle tension reinforces the restraint placed on a joint by its ligaments , and thus restricts movement 

89

 

4) contact of soft parts 

 

The point at which one body surface contacts another may limit mobility

 

Movement be restricted by the presence of adipose tissue 

90

5) hormones

 

Flexibility may also be affected by hormones

 Relaxin increases the flexibility of pubic symphysis and loosens the ligaments between sacrum and hip bone toward the end of pregnancy 

91

6) disuse

 Movement may be restricted if a joint has not been used for an extended period  

92

Selected Joints of the Body (5) 

 Temporomandibular joint 

Shoulder joint 

 Elbow joint 

 Hip joint 

 Knee joint 

93

 Temporomandibular joint 

type?

formed by?

 

 Combined hinge and planar joint formed by the mandible and the temporal bone

 Only movable joint between skull bones

Only the mandible moves 

94

Shoulder joint 

type?

formed by?

movement?

 

Ball-and-socket joint formed by the head of the humerus and the scapula

more freedom of movement thanany other joint of the body 

95

 Elbow joint 

type?

formed by?

 Hinge joint

formed by the humerus, the ulna, and the radius 

96

 Hip joint 

type?

formed by?

 

Ball-and-socket joint formed by the femur and the hip bone 

97

 Knee joint 

type?

 

 Largest and most complex joint of the body

Modified hinge joint 

98

Does the gomphosis, suture, synchondrosis or hinge joint have more movement? 

hinge joint

99

 Would a synovial, cartilaginous or fibrous joint have a meniscus? 

synovial

100

What function does the labrum have in the glenohumeral joint? 

deepen and enlarge glenoid cavity

101

What is the name of the type of joint found between the femur and the tibia? 

tibiofemoral (knee) joint

modified hinge joint

102

What structure secretes synovial fluid? 

synovial membrane

103

 What is the classification of the joint found between the first metacarpal and the proximal phalanx?   

synovial (condyloid) 

- diarthrosis

104

 Which type of joint is slightly movable and held together by fibrous connective tissue? 

Syndesmoses 

105