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1

a weaker bond between a partially positive H and partially negative atom (usually O, F or N) due to electronegativity. this often connects H2O molecules. important in DNA structure and protein folding

hydrogen bond

2

oligosaccharides

several monosaccharides. these usually have additional functional groups. often are covalentlybonded to proteins and lipids where they are recognition signals

3

fats and oils. hydrocarbons (made of H and C) insoluble in water bc of nonpolar covalent bonds. held together via van der Waals interactions. store energy, maintain cell membrane structure and keep animals warm

lipids

4

attraction between ions with opposite charges. weak bond and fall apart in water. this can occur because an atom gives an electron to another atom so they both become ions. they bond because the ions are attracted to each other

ionic bonds

5

membranes

created an internal environment for chemical reactions within a cell, made up of phospholipids and fatty acids

6

endergonic / endothermic

simple molecules form complex molecules, this requires an input of energy to break break strong bonds in smaller molecules

7

molecules

stable associations caused by atoms sharing electrons

7

entropy

measure of disorder in a system. more disorder equals lost energy. in any reaction some energy is lost

8

ionic bonds

attraction between ions with opposite charges. weak bond and fall apart in water. this can occur because an atom gives an electron to another atom so they both become ions. they bond because the ions are attracted to each other

9

a funtional group. nonpolar, unreactive. adds to DNA to turn on/off genes.

methyl

10

covalent bond between two monosaccharides by condensation reactions

glycosidic linkage

11

catabolic reactions / catabolism / exergonic / exothermic

breaking down complex molecules into simpler ones and releasing the energy that was used to make the complex molecules

11

a funtional group. basic, accepts/sucks up H to lower H concentration. donates -H in condensation reactions

amino

12

surface tension

the surface of liquid water is difficult tp puncture becase water molecules at the surface are hydrogen-bonded to to other molecules below them. this allows water to be filled above its rim w/o overflowing and spiders to walk on pond water

13

a covalent bond in which the electrons are drawn to one nucleus more than the other, resulting in an unequal distribution of charge. caused one atom to be partially positive and the other to be partially negative

polar covalent bond

14

breaking down complex molecules into simpler ones and releasing the energy that was used to make the complex molecules

catabolic reactions / catabolism / exergonic / exothermic

15

monosaccharides, 5 carbon sugars. these are ribose and deoxyribose, the backbones of RNA and DNA

pentose

16

anabolic reactions / anabolism / endergonic / endothermic

simple molecules form complex molecules, this requires an input of energy to break break strong bonds in smaller molecules

17

covalent bond

bond that forms when 2 atoms share one or more pairs of electrons. very strong

18

fatty acid

long nonpolar hydrocarbon chain attached to a polar carboxyl group. tail is hydrophobic

20

water takes a lot of heat to raise its temperature or to evaprate because much of the heat energy is used to break the hydrogen bonds in the water

heat capacity and heat of vaporization

21

phospholipids

like triglycerides. two fatty acids attached to glycerol and a phosphate compound replacing one of the fatty acids. phosphate compound is hydrophillic while fatty acids are hydrophobic (so amphipathic). 2 of these combine to make the bilayer of the membrane.

21

first law of thermodynamics

energy is neither created nor destroyed

22

highly branched polymer of glucose. main energy storage molecule in mammals. can store glucose w/o water rushing in bc it is so branched. type of polysaccharide

glycogen

23

bond that forms when 2 atoms share one or more pairs of electrons. very strong

covalent bond

24

heat capacity and heat of vaporization

water takes a lot of heat to raise its temperature or to evaprate because much of the heat energy is used to break the hydrogen bonds in the water

25

cellulose

most abundant carbon containing compound. unbranched polymer of glucose. in plants. type of polysaccharide

26

how polymers are covalently linked. H and OH is removed from two monomers to attach them and this produces water

condensation

27

carboxyl

a funtional group. important in proteins. acidic and gives up lots of H. also donates -OH in condensation reactions

28

hydrogen bond

a weaker bond between a partially positive H and partially negative atom (usually O, F or N) due to electronegativity. this often connects H2O molecules. important in DNA structure and protein folding