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1

carrier protein

helps in faciliated diffusion. this speeds up the rate of diffusion for one kind of molecule. specific substances bind to it which changes the proteins shape so those same substances can pass through. when enough substrate is binding to it it reaches max velocity

1

this is a type of primary transport and a transmembrane protein. for every ATP 3 Na is pumped out of cell and 2 K is pumped into the cell.

sodium-potassium pump

2

type of passive transport, simple diffusion for H2O. some people think it is small enough to get past hydrophobic region of membrane or hitchhikes with other ions or passes via water only channels called aquaporins

osmosis

2

cytoplasmic receptor

receptor in cytoplasm for small or nonpolar particles than can diffuse across membrane (like hormones, cortisol). very few particles have this.

3

endocytosis

process of moving macromolecules (that are too big to pass through membranes) into the cell via vesicles. 3 types: phagocytosis, pinocytosis and recepter-mediated endocytosis

4

symporter

type of secondary active transport. moves 2 molecules in the same direction. e.g. as Na moves down concentration gradient then glucose "hitchhikes" with it (against its concentration gradient)

4

signals that affect themselves, affect the same cell that release the signals

autocrine signals

6

G-protein linked receptors

type of membrane receptor. transfers signals outside to inside cell. ligand binds to this receptor, GDP changes to GTP, activates G protein inside cell, G protein travels down membrane and hits an effector protein. causes effect in the cell. this signal is amplified

7

hypertonic

more solutes than the other side

7

type of passive transport. protein helps as a channel or carrier

facilitated diffusion

7

ABC transporter

type of primary active transport. a transmembrane protein that pumps compounds (like drugs/toxins) out of the cell

7

autocrine signals

signals that affect themselves, affect the same cell that release the signals

9

simple diffusion

type of passive transport. molecules move directly through the plasma membrane, O2 and CO2 do this

10

proteins that are partly or fully embedded in the bilayer, has hydrophobic regions. some types are transmembrane and anchored membrane proteins

integral membrane proteins

11

helps in faciliated diffusion. this speeds up the rate of diffusion for one kind of molecule. specific substances bind to it which changes the proteins shape so those same substances can pass through. when enough substrate is binding to it it reaches max velocity

carrier protein

12

type of endocytosis. cell eating. surrounds a solid particle and brings it into a cell.

phagocytosis

12

hydrophobic molecules

type of second messengers. in membrane and regulate membrane, includes DAG

13

phospholipase C

enzyme, acts as scissors. cuts a membrane phospholipid molecule into DAG and IP3. it is activated by some G proteins

14

osmosis

type of passive transport, simple diffusion for H2O. some people think it is small enough to get past hydrophobic region of membrane or hitchhikes with other ions or passes via water only channels called aquaporins

14

phagocytosis

type of endocytosis. cell eating. surrounds a solid particle and brings it into a cell.

15

type of primary active transport. a transmembrane protein that pumps compounds (like drugs/toxins) out of the cell

ABC transporter

16

type of integral membrane protein. it is anchored in place in the membrane with a hydrophobic lipid tail or the cytoskeleton

anchored membrane protein

16

less solute concentration than the other side

hypotonic

17

type of secondary active transport. moves 2 molecules in the same direction. e.g. as Na moves down concentration gradient then glucose "hitchhikes" with it (against its concentration gradient)

symporter

17

receptor in cytoplasm for small or nonpolar particles than can diffuse across membrane (like hormones, cortisol). very few particles have this.

cytoplasmic receptor

18

type of second messenger. in cytosol. includes IP3 and cAMP

 

hydrophillic molecule

18

type of second messenger and hydrophillic molecule. binds to a IP3 gated Ca Ion channel on smooth ER. this releases calcium from ER into cytoplasm and interacts with DAG to activate protein kinsae C

IP3

19

second messenger

an intermediate between primary response and the response inside the cell (the cascade of responses). three types: hydrophobic molecules, hydrophillic molescules (cAMP) and gases.

19

type of membrane receptor, change shape when ligand bonds to it. this shape change exposes it's active site which adds phosphates (with neg charge) to other proteins and turns enzymes on/off, adds phosphate group to a specific target

protein kinase receptors

20

An integral membrane protein that extends all the way through the phospholipid bilayer. it has hydrophilic side chains and allows subtances to move across the membrane

Transmembrane protein