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1

allele

different forms of genes (such as round or wrinkled in seeds). each chromosome has one of these. we have 2 copies of every chromosomes so we have 2 of these for each gene. one from mom and one from dad

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dominant

trait that appears in F1, Rr - big R

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Mendel's 1st law. two copies of a gene separate when an individual makes gametes. during meiosis, each gamete receives only one copy of each gene.

law of segregation

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crossing parental varieties with one trait that is different  crossing two homozygous parents on one trait to get a heterozygous F1. this is a 2x2 Punnett square

monohybrids

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do this to find out if the what the genotype of an organism is. cross unkown F1 with a known homozygous recessive (rr) because it doesn't mask the phenotype

test cross

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recombinant

offspring that look part paternal and part maternal, this means there was a crossing over event

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males (XY) are this, only one copy of the X chromosome

hemizygous

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Expressivity

a parameter that describes the effects of the environment on the genotype. the degree to which genotype is expressed in an individual

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we only get mitochondrial or chloroplast DNA (organelles) from the mom

maternal or cytoplasmic inheritance

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locus, loci (pl.)

where a gene is located in a chromosome

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epistasis

the phenotypic expression of one gene is influenced by another gene

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two copies of the homozygous allele (either dominant or recessive), it can only pass on 1 trait

true-breeding individual

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2 copies of the same allele. RR, rr

homozygous

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offspring that look part paternal and part maternal, this means there was a crossing over event

recombinant

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second filial generation (F2)

offspring of first filial generation

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Mendel's 2nd law. copies of different genes on different chromosomes assort independently during gamete formation

law of independent assortment

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how close are two genes on a chromosome? this can alter their patterns of inheritance. if they are further apart crossing over is more common, if they are closer together they are more tightly linked

linkage analysis

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X-linked recessive inheritance

phenotypes that appear much more often in males because women are XX and one X can "mask" the other X, while XY is hemizygous

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you get one copy of DNA carried on a chromosome from each parent. each chromosome remains distinct and intact (doesn't blend). you get 2 genes for each trait, one from each parent. Mendel's theory

particulate theory of inheritance

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hemizygous

males (XY) are this, only one copy of the X chromosome

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a parameter that describes the effects of the environment on the genotype. the proportion of individuals with a certain genotype that show the phenotype (100% in Huntington's disease, if you have a copy you will get the disease)

penetrance

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monohybrids

crossing parental varieties with one trait that is different  crossing two homozygous parents on one trait to get a heterozygous F1. this is a 2x2 Punnett square

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heterozygous

2 different alles, Rr

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different forms of genes (such as round or wrinkled in seeds). each chromosome has one of these. we have 2 copies of every chromosomes so we have 2 of these for each gene. one from mom and one from dad

allele

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this disorder is in a gene on the X chromosome (which is larger than Y and has a lot of genes). this causes X-linked recessive phenotypes

sex-linked inheritance

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2 different alles, Rr

heterozygous

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where a gene is located in a chromosome

locus, loci (pl.)

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penetrance

a parameter that describes the effects of the environment on the genotype. the proportion of individuals with a certain genotype that show the phenotype (100% in Huntington's disease, if you have a copy you will get the disease)

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allele present in the majority of the population, not mutant

wild-type allele

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offspring of peranetal generation

first filial generation (F1)