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1

telomerase

enzyme with RNA sequence that acts as a template for telomeric DNA sequences

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germ line mutation

occurs in germ line cells that make gametes.  A gamete passes this mutation on at fertilization. gets passed on to offspring

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exons (coding regions)

region of the gene that contain sequences within the transcribed region that are translated to protein. they get spliced together and make protein

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amplifying a fragment of DNA in a test tube for chemical analysis and genetic manipulations. this amplifies exponentially and makes millions of identical copies of thise DNA fragment. it uses DNA template, high temperature, 2 short primers, the four dNTP's and salts/buffer to maintain pH

PCR (polymerase chain reaction)

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enzyme that "sews" up the gaps in the lagging strand

DNA ligase

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deletions

kind of chromosomal mutations. result in the removal of part of the genetic material and can have severe or fatal
consequences

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induced mutation

cause of mutation. due to an outside agent, like a mutagen. chemicals can cause deamination. also caused by radiation

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polymer of nucleotides. stores and transmits genetic info. double stranded. strands run in opposite directions (antiparallel) and form a ladder that twists into a double helix. lacks OH group so it is more table. one nucleotide is pentose sugar(deoxyribose), nitogenous base (A, T, G, C) and phosphate. phosphate and sugar are stable

DNA

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somatic mutation

occurs in somatic (body) cells. 
It is passed on by mitosis but not to sexually-produced offspring.

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inversions

kind of chromosomal mutation.  result from a segment of the chromosome breaking off, “flipping,” and
rejoining.

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DNA polymerase

enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of the complementary strand of DNA. it is very fast. new nucleotides form base pairs with template strands that are linked together by phosphodeister bonds. new DNA strand is made 5' to 3'. it adds nucleotides to the 3' end of the primer. it also replaces RNA primer with DNA

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conditional mutations

cause phenotypes to change under restrictive conditions (like temperature) but are not detectable under permissive conditions. e.g. rabbit with different colored feet and ears.

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DNA replication starts by binding this large protein complex to a specific site (ori) on DNA molecule. this complex includes DNA polymerase

pre-replication complex

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region of the gene that contain sequences within the transcribed region that are translated to protein. they get spliced together and make protein

exons (coding regions)

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bacteriophages

virus with DNA and a little protein that inject its DNA into bacteria. this hijacks the bacteria cell and turns it into a virus making factory before "exploding"

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radicals

created by ionization radiation. they are highly reactive and can change/break DNA backbone

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nucleotide

basic unit in nucleic acids (RNA and DNA). composed of pentose sugar, a phosphate group and nitrogenous base

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cause of mutation. occurs with no outside influence. caused when a base is temporarily the rare tautomer it can pair with the wrong base. also caused by deamination. also caused by imperfect meiosis which results in nondisjunction of homologous chromosomes

spontaneous mutation

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benefits of mutations

provides raw material for evolution, in somatic cells they may benefit the organism immediately, they may  cause an advantageous change in offspring

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multiple origins (ori sites) of replication

eukaryotic chromosomes and linear and very long so they have this to speed up replication

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a starter strand to begin DNA replication. complementary to DNA template. short sequence and temporary. provides 3' end to add nucleotides to

RNA primer

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counteracts chromosome shortening and prevents chromosome ends from joining each other. a repetitive sequence at the ends of chromosomes. non important DNA. they will be cut off instead of chromsomes. made by telomerase

telomeres

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transgenic organism

when recombinant DNA is incorporated into a host cell's genes. used as a marker in research. to see if a gene got into the organism

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enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of the complementary strand of DNA. it is very fast. new nucleotides form base pairs with template strands that are linked together by phosphodeister bonds. new DNA strand is made 5' to 3'. it adds nucleotides to the 3' end of the primer. it also replaces RNA primer with DNA

DNA polymerase

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enzyme with RNA sequence that acts as a template for telomeric DNA sequences

telomerase

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DNA repair mechanism. as DNA polymerase adds nucleotides, if they are paired incorrectly they are removed and correct nucleotide is added

proofreading

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translocations

kind of chromosomal mutation. occurs when a segment of DNA breaks off and is inserted into a nonhomologous chromosome, which may lead to duplications and deletions.

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mutagens

substances that cause mutations, such as radiation or certain chemicals

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form of a base. each base has two of these. if it is temporarily the rare form it can pair with the wrong base and lead to spontaneous mutations

tautomers

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basic unit in nucleic acids (RNA and DNA). composed of pentose sugar, a phosphate group and nitrogenous base

nucleotide