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1

includes nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi and lysosomes. has vesicles that shuttle substances (likeproteins) between all of these organelles

endomembrane system

2

secondary lysosome

when phagosome fuses with primary lysosome. hydrolysis occurs here which provides monomers for other cellular processes (recycled) and the undigested particles are released outside of the cell.

2

chloroplast

mature plastid that is the site of photosynthesis and contains chlorophyll (green pigment). has two membranes. inner membrane is thylakoid. includes granum and stroma

2

stroma

 fluids surrounding thylakoids, carbon is synthesized into carbs here

2

microfilaments

part of cytoskeleton. made of protein actin, help cell or part of cell move. determine cell shape. can get longer (polymers) and shorter (monomers) depending on what is needed

2

microtubules

part of cytoskeleton with largest diameter. form a rigid skeleton and are the track the guides things around in the cell. they are hollow. made up dimers of the protein tubulin. they have some dynamic instability. important in cilia and flagella. in a 9 + 2 arrangement in cilia and flagella. 9 doublets surrounding 2 singlets.

2

specialized cells that bring materials into the cell to break them down. a vesicle conaining macromolecules from outside the cell and it fuses with the primary lysosome to form a secondary lysosome

phagosome

2

stacks in chloroplast, part of photosynthesis takes place here to make ATP

thylakoids

3

smooth ER

no ribosomes on the membrane so it is smooth. drugs and pesticides can be chemically modified here. glycogen is broken down and calcium is stored here and it is where lipids and steroids are synthesized

3

no ribosomes on the membrane so it is smooth. drugs and pesticides can be chemically modified here. glycogen is broken down and calcium is stored here and it is where lipids and steroids are synthesized

smooth ER

4

folds on mitochondira inner membrane that increases surface area to increase capacity to make energy

cristae

5

nuclear envelope

surrounds nucleus

5

phagocytosis

process where macromolecules enter the cell from outside in vesicles called phagosomes

6

cytoskeleton

supports and maintains cell shape. holds organelles in position. gives a "track" to move organelles/particles around the cell. interacts with extracellular membrane to hold cell in place. connects things inside and outside of cell. 3 parts: microfilaments, intermediate filaments and microtubules

7

part of cytoskeleton with largest diameter. form a rigid skeleton and are the track the guides things around in the cell. they are hollow. made up dimers of the protein tubulin. they have some dynamic instability. important in cilia and flagella. in a 9 + 2 arrangement in cilia and flagella. 9 doublets surrounding 2 singlets.

microtubules

8

surface area-to-volume ratio

this must be large for cells because volume increases faster than surface area. if volume is larger the cell will need more resources and will have more waste and organelles are farther apart. and the surface area determines what enters and exits a cell. this explains why organisms are made of many small cells instead of a few large ones.

8

the is site of protein synthesis (in prokaryotes and eukaryotes because they are not membrane bound). has one large and one small subunits that have rRNA (ribosomal RNA) and protein in it. this translates mRNA into an amino acid sequenceto form proteins. they are free in cytoplasm, attached to ER or inside mitochondria/chloroplast

ribosomes

9

trans

region of Golgi. vesicles with protein bud off Golgi and travel to the plasma membrane or lysosomes

10

primary lysosome

originates in Golgi and is a vesicle that buds off the Golgi. it contains digestive enzymes. where macromolecules are hydrolyzed into monomers

11

extracellular structure surrounding many animal cells. it holds tissues together, contributeto physical properties (of cartilage, skin, tissues), help filter materials between tissues and help orien cell movements.

extracellular matrix

13

chromosomes

DNA wrapped around protein and compact. these can be moved around

15

originates in Golgi and is a vesicle that buds off the Golgi. it contains digestive enzymes. where macromolecules are hydrolyzed into monomers

primary lysosome

17

endoplasmic reticulum

a bunch of membranes that give it a large surface area. two types of it, rough (with ribosomes) and smooth

18

DNA and protein

chromatin

18

allows actin to quickly assemble or breakdown (depending on what is needed)

dynamic instability

19

cell junctions

keeps cells together. 3 tyes: tight junctions, desmosomes and gap junctions

20

has ribosomes attached to it. all secreted proteins pass through this. new proteins enter the interior (called lumen) to be chemically modified and tagged for delivery. proteins are transported to other locations in the cell.

rough ER

20

motor protein that interacts with actin that work in muscle contraction

myosin

21

region of Golgi. vesicles with protein bud off Golgi and travel to the plasma membrane or lysosomes

trans

23

rough ER

has ribosomes attached to it. all secreted proteins pass through this. new proteins enter the interior (called lumen) to be chemically modified and tagged for delivery. proteins are transported to other locations in the cell.