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Flashcards in Comprehension Deck (215)
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1

purine

type of base with double rings. A, G

2

golgi apparatus

composed of flattened sacs (cisternae) and membrane enclosed vesicles.  vesicles with protein are budded off the ER and are fused here. proteins are modified further (like adding carbs/sugars to them). like the post office. proteins are received, modified, sent off. three regions. cis, trans and medial

3

the stuff in between the nucleus/nucloid and cell membrane. "the rest of the cell." includes cytosol and organelles

cytoplasm

4

a starter strand to begin DNA replication. complementary to DNA template. short sequence and temporary. provides 3' end to add nucleotides to

RNA primer

5

granum

stacks of thylakoid

5

new strand of DNA made in the direction of the unzipping (towards the fork)

leading strand

5

males (XY) are this, only one copy of the X chromosome

hemizygous

6

pre-replication complex

DNA replication starts by binding this large protein complex to a specific site (ori) on DNA molecule. this complex includes DNA polymerase

6

pyrimidines

type of base with single rings. C, T, U

6

epistasis

 

the phenotypic expression of one gene is influenced by another gene

7

enzyme

biological catalysts. all are proteins. always end in "-ase". work by inducing strain or changing orientation of substrate or adding a chemical group

7

type of base with single rings. C, T, U

pyrimidines

8

helps in facilitated diffusion. a hole/pore w/ hydrophillic tunnel going thru hydrophobic membrane. it moves charged ions through membrane. it is an electrochemical gradient. it has 3 types of gates: voltage gated channels, ligand gated channels and mechanially gated channels

ion channel proteins

8

type of secondary active transport. moves 2 molecules in opposite direction. e.g. as Na moves down concentration gradient, Ca moves agains concentration gradient

antiporter

9

the liquid part of the cell, any water and solids dissolved in it (like ions and salts)

cytosol

9

generic term for different organelles in plant and algae cells. e.g. chloroplast, chromoplast and leukoplast

plastid

10

mitochondria

in plant and animal cells. harvests chemical energy of energy rich molecules (like glucose)  in a form the cell can use (ATP). it has ribosomes, DNA and can divide independently. has 2 membranes (outer and inner). outer membrane is porous. inner membrane has folds (cristae) which increases surface area and increases capacity to make energy

10

DNA ligase

enzyme that "sews" up the gaps in the lagging strand

10

recombinant

offspring that look part paternal and part maternal, this means there was a crossing over event

10

the phenotypic expression of one gene is influenced by another gene

epistasis

 

11

holes in cell wall for cells to communicate

plasmodesmata

12

in plant and animal cells. harvests chemical energy of energy rich molecules (like glucose)  in a form the cell can use (ATP). it has ribosomes, DNA and can divide independently. has 2 membranes (outer and inner). outer membrane is porous. inner membrane has folds (cristae) which increases surface area and increases capacity to make energy

mitochondria

12

osmosis

type of passive transport, simple diffusion for H2O. some people think it is small enough to get past hydrophobic region of membrane or hitchhikes with other ions or passes via water only channels called aquaporins

12

covalent bond links together amino acids to form protein. condensation reactions links amino group of the new amino acid chain with the carboxyl group of the amino acid at the end of the chain

peptide bonds

12

family tree. geneticists use these to determine if a rare disease allele is dominant or recessive. this c an determine how a disorder runs through a family and what kind of disorder it is.

pedigree

 

14

proteins that are not embedded in the bilayer and lack a hydrophobic region. they have polar regions

peripheral membrane proteins

15

nucleolus

region where ribosomes begin to assemble before they are exported. this is inside the nucleus

15

a parameter that describes the effects of the environment on the genotype. the proportion of individuals with a certain genotype that show the phenotype (100% in Huntington's disease, if you have a copy you will get the disease)

penetrance

16

isotonic

equal amount of solutes as the other side

17

supports and maintains cell shape. holds organelles in position. gives a "track" to move organelles/particles around the cell. interacts with extracellular membrane to hold cell in place. connects things inside and outside of cell. 3 parts: microfilaments, intermediate filaments and microtubules

cytoskeleton