Chapter 6 Flashcards Preview

Biology > Chapter 6 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 6 Deck (60)
Loading flashcards...
1

endergonic

energy is required, must be added to the reactants. synthesizes things, like adding P to ADP to make ATP

1

cellular respiration

major catabolic pathway. metabolic reactions used by cells to harvest energy from food. energy is released when reduced molecules with many C-C and C-H bonds are oxidized to CO2. this oxidation of glucose to CO2 is done in a series of small steps. 3 pathways: glycolysis, pyruvate oxidation and citric acid cycle. goal is to break down glucose into NADH and then make ATP

1

citric acid cycle or Krebs cycle

third step in cellular respiration in mitochondrial matrix. two 2 carbon acetyly CoA are added to 4 C to make 6 C molecule. it breaks back down to 4 C (for the next cycle) and in these redox reactions a bunch of NADH is formed (to make ATP in the next step) and 2 ATP is made

1

major catabolic pathway. metabolic reactions used by cells to harvest energy from food. energy is released when reduced molecules with many C-C and C-H bonds are oxidized to CO2. this oxidation of glucose to CO2 is done in a series of small steps. 3 pathways: glycolysis, pyruvate oxidation and citric acid cycle. goal is to break down glucose into NADH and then make ATP

cellular respiration

2

third step in cellular respiration in mitochondrial matrix. two 2 carbon acetyly CoA are added to 4 C to make 6 C molecule. it breaks back down to 4 C (for the next cycle) and in these redox reactions a bunch of NADH is formed (to make ATP in the next step) and 2 ATP is made

citric acid cycle / Krebs cycle

3

the gain or one or more electrons and H by an atom, ion or molecule.

reduction

4

photosynthesis

major anabolic pathway. light energy, H20 andCO2 converts to chemical energy (ATP and NADH) and sugar and O2. occurs in chloroplast (partly in thylakoid and stroma). has 2 pathways: light reactions and carbon-fixation reaction

5

photons

packets of light energy, can move molecule to an excited state

6

reaction in which one substance transfers one or more electrons to another substance. reduction and oxidation occurring together (this always happens!). energy is transferred

redox, or reduction-oxidation reaction

6

first step of cellular respiration. in cytoplasm, break 6 carbon molecule into two 3 carbon molecule (called pyruvate). produces 2 NADH (to be converted to ATP later) and 2 ATP

glycolysis

7

light travels as this. distance between 2 peaks. shorter is more energy (like x rays or UV) and longer is less energy.

wavelength

8

carbon fixation reactions

pathway of photosynthesis. uses ATP, NADPH (from light reactions) and CO2 to produce carbs. enzyme rubisco helps this process. occurs in stroma during Calvin Cycle

9

chlorophyll is excited and gives electron to this. H2O is oxidized to O2 (H2O is electron donor). NADP+ is reduced to NADPH. protein gradient is created across thylakoid membrane and ATP is produced by chemiosmosis. ATP is used to make sugars

electron transport system in chloroplast

9

ATP and NADPH from electron transport in chloroplast goes here. this is the carbon-fixation reaction of photosynthesis. occurs in stroma of chloroplast. ATP and NADPH is used to fix CO2 (reduce CO2) into sugar/carbs.

The Calvin Cycle

11

exergonic

releases energy from reactants, e.g. breaks P off of ATP (hydrolysis of ATP) to release energy that can be used in an energy requiring reaction

12

heterotrophs

can't do photosynthesis, relies on plants for energy (animals)

13

NAD+, NADH

stored or trapped energy when reduced. an electron carrier in cells in redox reactions and when it is oxidized can release more energy than hydrolysis of ATP

13

oxidative phosphorylation

electron transport chain and chemiosmosis. produces ATP in mitochondria

14

redox, or reduction-oxidation reaction

reaction in which one substance transfers one or more electrons to another substance. reduction and oxidation occurring together (this always happens!). energy is transferred

14

pyruvate oxidation

2nd step in cellular respiration in mitochondrial matrix. two 3 C pyruvate molecules are oxidized into 2 carbon Acetyl CoA in a redox reaction. NADH and CO2 is given off

15

diffusion of protons down their electrochemical gradient. converts potential energy of protons (H) into the chemical energy of ATP. the mechanism that drives synthesis of ATP. this occurs in ATP synthase in the inner mitochondrial membrane

chemiosmosis

16

chemiosmosis

diffusion of protons down their electrochemical gradient. converts potential energy of protons (H) into the chemical energy of ATP. the mechanism that drives synthesis of ATP. this occurs in ATP synthase in the inner mitochondrial membrane

18

2nd step in cellular respiration in mitochondrial matrix. two 3 C pyruvate molecules are oxidized into 2 carbon Acetyl CoA in a redox reaction. NADH and CO2 is given off

pyruvate oxidation

19

photosystems

proteins embedded in electron transport membrane in thylakoid. 2 types: II and I

20

The Calvin Cycle

ATP and NADPH from electron transport in chloroplast goes here. this is the carbon-fixation reaction of photosynthesis. occurs in stroma of chloroplast. ATP and NADPH is used to fix CO2 (reduce CO2) into sugar/carbs.

22

occurs in our muscle cells when we are too tired. starts with glycolysis. glucose to pyruvate to 2 lactic acid (lactate) and NADH is regenerated to NAD+. produces 2 lactic acid and 2 ATP. temporary for when O2 isnt available.

lactic acid fermentation

24

fermentation

reoxidizes NADH to NAD+ so glycolysis can continue. occurs in cytoplasm. only creates 2 ATP from glycolysis. occurs in absense of O2 (anaerobic). 2 types: lactic acid and alcoholic

26

a transmembrane protein (enzyme) in inner mitochondrial membrane. helps proton diffuse across the membrane. this converts potential energy of protein gradient into ATP (ATP synthesis!) in the process chemiosmosis. this produces about 30 ATP from one glucose molecule

ATP synthase

27

ATP synthase

a transmembrane protein (enzyme) in inner mitochondrial membrane. helps proton diffuse across the membrane. this converts potential energy of protein gradient into ATP (ATP synthesis!) in the process chemiosmosis. this produces about 30 ATP from one glucose molecule

27

pathway of photosynthesis convert light energy into chemical engery (ATP and NADPH). occurs in thylakoids

light reactions