Chapter 2 Cells And Tissues Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Cells And Tissues Deck (72):
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3 main parts of a cell

Plasma membrane
Cytoplasm
Nucleus

1

3 things plasma membrane does for the cell

Protects the cell
Communication device ; gateway
Identification

2

The cytoplasm is found between which two things

Plasma and nucleus

3

Organelles are found in the _______ and mean "little ________"

Cytoplasm ; organ

4

The 8 organelles found in the cytoplasm

Ribosomes
Endoplasmic of reticulum
Golgi apparatus
Mitochondria
Lysosomes
Centrioles
cilia
Flagella

5

Plasma membrane

Serves as the cell

6

Ribosomes

Synthesize proteins ; a cell "protein factory "

7

Endoplasmic reticulum

Rough ER receives and transports synthesized proteins

8

Golgi apparatus

Chemically processes then Packages substances from the ER

9

Mitochondria

ATP synthesis a cells powerhouse

10

Lysosomes

A cells digestive system

11

Centrioles

Function in a cell production

12

Cilia

Move substances along surfaces of the cell

13

The nucleus contains our chemical makeup called

DNA

14

The nucleus dictates protein synthesis therefore playing an essential role in what four activites of the cell

Active transport
Metabolism
Growth
Heredity

15

What role do the nucleoli play

It programs the formation of the ribosomes in the nucleus

16

3 things the plasma membrane will allow to move on and out of the cell

Water
Food
Waste

17

The two type of transport processes

Active
Passive

18

What is ATP

Adenine tri phosphate

19

Where is ATP produces

The mitochondria

20

What does ATP use to obtain energy

Nutrients

21

Passive transport

No cellular energy is required to move substances from high concentration to low concentration

22

Osmosis

The diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane

23

Dialysis

Solutes dissolved particles I. Water move across a selectively permeable membrane by diffusion

24

Diffusion

Movement of particles through a membrane from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration down the concentration gradient

25

Active transport

The expenditure of energy by the cell and passive transport processes do not

26

Ion pump

Makes possible the number of active transport mechanism

27

Phagocytosis

Ingestion and digestion of acids by a cell

28

Pinochtosis

The active transport mechanism used to transfer fluids or dissolved substances into cells

29

,mitosis is the process by which cells ______

Reproduce

30

Two nucleic acids play important roles in protein synthesis

DNA
RNA

31

_______ make heredity possible and are composed largely of DNA

Chromosomes

32

The smaller unit a DNA and RNA molecules are made up of

Sugar
Bases
Phosphate units

33

What are four basic nitrogen bases for DNA and RNA . Put this two pairs side by side

DNA: adenine. Thymine
Cytosine guanine

RNA: Adenine uracil
Cytosine guanine

34

DNA is contained I the _______ of the cell

Nucleus

35

Protein synthesis occurs in _________ and on the ____

Ribosomes; ER

36

_______. Transfers genetic information from the nucleus to the cytoplasm

RNA

37

Transcription

The process of transferri g genetic info for. The nucleus into the cytolasm where protiens a re actually produced requires completion of two specialized steps

38

Translation

The synthesis of a protein by ribosomes, which use the info contained in mRNA molecule to direct choice and sequencing of the a
Appropriate building blocks called amino acids

39

What is the cell doing I regards to cell division during interphase

Resting

40

What is replicated during interphase

Chromosomes

41

What happens to the DNA molecule as it begins replication?

Short segments of DNA molecule uncoil and the two strands of the molecule pull apart between their base pairs

42

Four Stages in Mitosis

Interphase (before)
Prophase
Metaphase
Anaphase
Telophase

43

Four main types of connective tissue

epithelial
connective
muscle
nervous

44

What are the shapes of epithelial tissue?

Squamous
Cuboidal
Columnar
Transitional

45

simple

a single layer of cells of the same shape

46

stratified

many layer of cells; named for the shpae of cells in the outer layer

47

6 types of Epithelial Tissue

Simple squamous
stratified squamous
simple columnar
stratified transitional
psudostratified (cilia on top part)
simple cuboidal

48

Simple Squamous
(Shape structure)
(Main Function)
Found where

single layer of flattened cells

diffusion of respiratory gasses between alveolar air and blood

lungs

49

stratified squamous
(shape/structure)
(Main function)
found where

many layers outer most layers are flattened cells

protection

surface of skin

50

simple columnar
shape/structure
main function
found where

single layer of tall, narrow cells

protection, secretion, transport

lining of the stomach

51

stratified transitional
shape/structure
main function
found where

many layer of varying shapes, capable of stretching

protection

urinary bladder

52

pseudo stratified
shape/structure
main function
found where

single layer of tall cells that wedge together to appear as if these are two or more layers

protection

surface lining of trachea

53

simple cuboidal
shape/structure
main function
found where

single layer of cells that are as tall as they are wide

secretion, absorption

glands; kidney

54

what are the most abundant and more varied forms than any other type

connective tissue

55

what are two things that connective tissue does to internal organs

holds them together
gives them shape

56

it exists as strong tough ____, rigid ________, and even _______

cords
bones
blood

57

areolar

shape and structure
main function

loose arrangement of fibers and cells

connection

58

Adipose
(shapes/structure)
(Main function)

Cells contain large fat compartments

stones, energy, body heat, cushions organs

59

Dense Fiberous
Shape Structure
Main Function

Densely spaced, randomly arranged fibers

tendons

60

Bone
Shape/Structure
Main Function

widely spaced cells

physically supports body provides movement and enclosed and protects soft organs

61

Cartilage
shape structure
main funciton

hard matrix with flowing white clls

transport nutrients gasses and waste

62

Hemopolectic
Shape/Structure
Main Function

Liquid matrix with dense arrangement of blood cells producing cells

blood cell formation

63

What are the movement specialists of the body?

muscle tissue

64

What are the three types of muscl tissue ?

skeletal
cardiac
smooth

65

skeletal
shape/structure
main function

single, long, cylindrical, multinucleate cells with obvious striations

movement of bones

66

cardiac
shape/structure
main function

branching chains of cells ; unit or binucleate striations

contraction of heart

67

smooth
Shape/structure
main function

single, fusiform, uninucleate , no striations

movement of substances along ducts

68

What are the two functions of nervous tissue?

rapid communication, an control of the body

69

axon

transmits a nerve impulse away from cell body

70

dendrite

carry impulses toward cell body

71

Where is the nervous tissue found

Brain and spinal cord