Chapter 6 the muscular system Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 6 the muscular system Deck (38):
0

tetanic contraction

is a more sustained and steady response than a twitch; produced by a series of stimuli bombarding the muscle in rapid succession

1

disuse atrophy

when the muscles are in prolonged inactivity and they shrink in mass

2

hypertrophy

when muscles are in prolonged exercise and an increase in muscle size

3

strength training

contracting muscles against heavy resistance

4

aerobic training

increases a muscle's ability to sustain moderate exercise over a long period

5

flexion

movement that makes the angle between two bones at their joint smaller than it was at the beginning of the movement

6

extension

make the angle between two bones at their joint larger than it was at their beginning of the movement

7

abduction

moving a part away from the midline of the body

8

adduction

moving a part toward the midline

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rotation

movement around a longitude axis

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supination

palm turned to the anterior position

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pronation

palm faces posteriously

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dorisflexion

dorsum/top of the foot is elevated with the toes pointing upward

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plantar flexion

bottom of the foot is directed downward /standing on your toes

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skeletal muscle

attaches to bone

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cardiac muscle

composes the bulk of the heart; involutary

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smooth muscle

involuntary muscles of the organs

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origin

muscles' attachment to the more movable bone

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insertion

muscle's attachment to the movable bones

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bursae

small flid sacs that lie between some tendons and the bones beneath them

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synovial membrane

secretes synovial fluid that bursae

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tendon sheaths

enclose some tendons; facilitate body movements

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muscle fibers

muscle tissue that consists of specialized contractile cells

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myosin

contractile protein found in the thick filaments of skeletal muscle

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sarcomere

the building block in the skeletal muscle

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sliding filament model

explanation of how a skeletal muscle contract

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prime mover

main one that's responsible for producing particular movement

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synergists

other muscles that help in producing movement

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antagonists

produce movement that is the prime movers and the synergistic

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tonic contraction

hold muscles in position

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posture

positions that favor the best position

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hypothermia

any decrease in body temperature that isn't normal

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fatigue

when muscle cells are stimulated repeatedly without adequate periods of rest and the strength of muscle contraction decrease resulting in fatigue

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oxygen debt

continued increased metabolism that occurs in a cell to remove excess lactic acid that resulted from excercise

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paralysis

loss of motion especially voluntary motion

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motor neuron

transmits nerve impulses form the brain and spinal cord to muscles and glandula epithelial tissues

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motor whit

a single unit neuron with the muscle cells in innervate

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threshold stimulus

the minimal level of stimulation required to cause a fiber to contract