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Flashcards in Chapter 20 Deck (80):
1

The type of muscle found in the forearm is:

a. voluntary muscle.
b. involuntary muscle.
c. integumentary muscle.
d. contractor muscle.

a. voluntary muscle.
b. involuntary muscle.
c. integumentary muscle.
d. contractor muscle.

Answer: a
Objective: 20-1
Reference: 608

2

2. The closed fracture of which of the following bone(s) has the greatest potential for internal blood loss?

a. The tibia/fibula
b. The femur
c. The humerus
d. The pelvis

a. The tibia/fibula
b. The femur
c. The humerus
d. The pelvis

Answer: d
Objective: Supplemental
Reference: 642

3

Which of the following statements about voluntary muscles is true?

a. They are mostly located on the torso of the body.
b. They make up less mass in the body than do involuntary muscles.
c. They have the ability to cause movement by extending.
d. They generally connect to the skeletal system.

a. They are mostly located on the torso of the body.
b. They make up less mass in the body than do involuntary muscles.
c. They have the ability to cause movement by extending.
d. They generally connect to the skeletal system.

Answer: d
Objective: 20-1
Reference: 608

4

During your SAMPLE inquiry, a patient reports that he had surgery to repair a torn ligament. Based on your training, you know that a ligament is:

a. a thick muscle that surrounds a joint.
b. a tissue that stabilizes two contiguous bone ends.
c. a muscle that connects to a bone.
d. connective tissue that connects muscle and bone.

a. a thick muscle that surrounds a joint.
b. a tissue that stabilizes two contiguous bone ends.
c. a muscle that connects to a bone.
d. connective tissue that connects muscle and bone.

Answer: b
Objective: 20-1
Reference: 607

5

Which of the following statements about musculoskeletal injuries is true?

a. A sprain is an injury to a joint that involves the stretching or tearing of ligaments.
b. Strains are injuries that occur to ligaments and to the joints to which they are attached.
c. A fracture occurs when a tendon connecting a muscle to a bone is overstretched and becomes injured.
d. A dislocation occurs when a bone that forms part of a joint is broken.

a. A sprain is an injury to a joint that involves the stretching or tearing of ligaments.
b. Strains are injuries that occur to ligaments and to the joints to which they are attached.
c. A fracture occurs when a tendon connecting a muscle to a bone is overstretched and becomes injured.
d. A dislocation occurs when a bone that forms part of a joint is broken.

Answer: a
Objective: 20-4
Reference: 612

6

The _____________ can be injured when a hip is dislocated, resulting in numbness or paralysis of a lower extremity.

a. cranial nerve
b. sciatic nerve
c. tibial nerve
d. central nervous system

a. cranial nerve
b. sciatic nerve
c. tibial nerve
d. central nervous system

Answer: b
Objective: 20-7
Reference: 631

7

You are assessing a 47-year-old woman who fell about 20 feet from a chair lift. When you palpate her pelvis you note instability, and she complains of pain. Which of the following is your primary concern for a patient who has a potential pelvic fracture?

a. Risk of infection
b. Internal blood loss
c. Severe pain
d. Permanent deformity

a. Risk of infection
b. Internal blood loss
c. Severe pain
d. Permanent deformity

Answer: b
Objective: Supplemental
Reference: 631, 642

8

Which of the following signs has the potential for the most immediate life-threatening consequences?

a. Deformity of the femur
b. An open fracture of the forearm
c. Dislocation of two fingers
d. Crepitus in the mid-humerus

a. Deformity of the femur
b. An open fracture of the forearm
c. Dislocation of two fingers
d. Crepitus in the mid-humerus

Answer: a
Objective: 20-7
Reference: 615

9

You are treating a patient who is complaining of moderate pain in the right knee. The knee is swollen, ecchymotic, and flexed about 45 degrees. CMS is intact. How would you treat this patient?

a. Place the patient on a long spine board and transport to the aid room, where you can examine the injury more efficiently.
b. Straighten the injured knee and then immobilize it by attaching it to the other leg.
c. Splint the knee in the position found before moving the patient.
d. Apply a traction splint and straighten the knee until the pain is decreased.

a. Place the patient on a long spine board and transport to the aid room, where you can examine the injury more efficiently.
b. Straighten the injured knee and then immobilize it by attaching it to the other leg.
c. Splint the knee in the position found before moving the patient.
d. Apply a traction splint and straighten the knee until the pain is decreased.

Answer: c
Objective: 20-7
Reference: 665

10

Your patient was struck in the right upper arm with a baseball bat. Which of the following signs or symptoms indicates the highest probability that the humerus has been fractured?

a. Crepitus felt on palpation
b. Pain in the right upper arm
c. Swelling in the upper arm
d. Decreased sensation in the right hand

a. Crepitus felt on palpation
b. Pain in the right upper arm
c. Swelling in the upper arm
d. Decreased sensation in the right hand

Answer: a
Objective: 20-7
Reference: 621

11

Your secondary assessment of a patient who is complaining of pain in his right leg reveals an opening in the skin where the fractured tibia broke through the skin and retreated back into the leg. You would recognize this injury as a(n):

a. open fracture.
b. closed fracture.
c. laceration.
d. partial fracture.

a. open fracture.
b. closed fracture.
c. laceration.
d. partial fracture.

Answer: a
Objective: 20-7
Reference: 613

12

You respond to a 9-year-old boy who was injured in the terrain park. He is complaining of pain in his right wrist. Upon examination you note deformity and swelling of the right wrist, pinkness of the right hand, and a strong radial pulse. Which of the following actions would be part of the proper care for this boy?

a. Straighten the wrist to promote blood flow to the hand.
b. Maintain the wrist below the level of the heart to decrease swelling.
c. Apply a cold pack to the wrist to reduce swelling.
d. Massage the wrist gently to decrease the pain.

a. Straighten the wrist to promote blood flow to the hand.
b. Maintain the wrist below the level of the heart to decrease swelling.
c. Apply a cold pack to the wrist to reduce swelling.
d. Massage the wrist gently to decrease the pain.

Answer: c
Objective: 20-7
Reference: 640

13

A 42-year-old man has fallen 25 feet while rock climbing. He hit the ground feet first and suffered open fractures to both tibias, which are protruding through the skin. When you arrive, he is responding to painful stimuli. His airway is open, his breathing is adequate, and his radial pulse is strong and rapid. At this point in his care, it is a priority for you to:

a. cover him to help prevent shock.
b. look for other injuries.
c. obtain a medical history from his friends.
d. immobilize the fractures.

a. cover him to help prevent shock.
b. look for other injuries.
c. obtain a medical history from his friends.
d. immobilize the fractures.

Answer: b
Objective: 20-7
Reference: 619

14

When placing a person in anatomic position using the principles of Pretzels and Jams, are the head, shoulders, and buttocks put into a straight line?

a. Yes
b. No

a. Yes
b. No

Answer: a
Objective: Supplemental
Reference: 674

15

A patient fell and sustained an open fracture of the left humerus. Assessment reveals that the bone has pulled back into the arm. Bleeding from the site is controlled. For which of the following reasons would splinting the left arm benefit this patient?

a. A splint decreases the likelihood of further injury to nerves and blood vessels.
b. A splint starts the process of healing by aligning and connecting the bone ends.
c. A splint eliminates the possibility of infection through the open wound.
d. A splint converts the open fracture to a closed fracture.

a. A splint decreases the likelihood of further injury to nerves and blood vessels.
b. A splint starts the process of healing by aligning and connecting the bone ends.
c. A splint eliminates the possibility of infection through the open wound.
d. A splint converts the open fracture to a closed fracture.

Answer: a
Objective: Supplemental
Reference: 640

16

Which of the following emergency care measures for a patient with a possible bone fracture can be an effective way of reducing pain?

a. Administering oxygen therapy to the patient
b. Applying warm packs to the fracture site
c. Splinting the fracture
d. Massaging the injury site

a. Administering oxygen therapy to the patient
b. Applying warm packs to the fracture site
c. Splinting the fracture
d. Massaging the injury site

Answer: c
Objective: Supplemental
Reference: 640

17

A patient has suffered an injury to his right leg, and deformity of the tibia-fibula region is obvious. After conducting a primary assessment and manually stabilizing the leg, which of the following actions should you take next?

a. Apply a traction splint.
b. Apply a Quick Splint.
c. Check for a pedal pulse.
d. Apply an ice pack to the injury.

a. Apply a traction splint.
b. Apply a Quick Splint.
c. Check for a pedal pulse.
d. Apply an ice pack to the injury.

Answer: c
Objective: Supplemental
Reference: 640

18

A patient with a closed fracture to the mid-forearm has been properly splinted when which of the following structures have been immobilized?

a. The wrist and forearm
b. The wrist, forearm, and elbow
c. The elbow and forearm
d. The shoulder, elbow, and forearm

a. The wrist and forearm
b. The wrist, forearm, and elbow
c. The elbow and forearm
d. The shoulder, elbow, and forearm

Answer: b
Objective: Supplemental
Reference: 656

19

You are called to treat a 27-year-old man who fell while snowboarding and struck his leg against a tree. The primary assessment shows no threats to his airway, breathing, or circulation. A secondary assessment reveals a severely deformed knee that is swollen and ecchymotic. The leg is pale and cool, and the patient cannot move the leg when asked to do so. In addition, you cannot palpate a pedal pulse. Which of the following actions should you take at this time?

a. Apply cold packs to the knee and then Quick Splint it in the position found.
b. Continue attempting to realign the leg until a pulse returns.
c. Apply a traction splint and enough traction until a pulse returns.
d. Attempt to straighten the leg once to see if a pulse returns.

a. Apply cold packs to the knee and then Quick Splint it in the position found.
b. Continue attempting to realign the leg until a pulse returns.
c. Apply a traction splint and enough traction until a pulse returns.
d. Attempt to straighten the leg once to see if a pulse returns.

Answer: d
Objective: Supplemental
Reference: 665

20

A 60-year-old woman suffered an open tibial fracture when she stepped sideways on her foot while jogging. Which of the following interventions constitutes appropriate care for this injury?

a. Gently replace the protruding bone beneath the skin.
b. Clean dirt from off the bone and out of the wound before splinting the leg.
c. Tightly apply a pressure dressing to the open wound.
d. Apply a sterile dressing to the bone end and to the soft-tissue wound.

a. Gently replace the protruding bone beneath the skin.
b. Clean dirt from off the bone and out of the wound before splinting the leg.
c. Tightly apply a pressure dressing to the open wound.
d. Apply a sterile dressing to the bone end and to the soft-tissue wound.

Answer: d
Objective: Supplemental
Reference: 639

21

The benefit of applying a traction splint to a deformed femur fracture is that it:

a. corrects the fracture.
b. decreases pain.
c. increases perfusion to the muscle.
d. contracts the thigh muscle.

a. corrects the fracture.
b. decreases pain.
c. increases perfusion to the muscle.
d. contracts the thigh muscle.

Answer: b
Objective: Supplemental
Reference: 644

22

You are watching an OEC candidate apply a splint to an injured patient. You note that the splint appears to be loose, and you assist the candidate in properly applying it. After you have delivered your patient to the aid room, you explain to the candidate that a splint applied too loosely could result in:

a. damage to muscles, nerves, and blood vessels.
b. conversion of an open fracture to a closed fracture.
c. decreased pain to the fracture site.
d. new fractures along the bone.

a. damage to muscles, nerves, and blood vessels.
b. conversion of an open fracture to a closed fracture.
c. decreased pain to the fracture site.
d. new fractures along the bone.

Answer: a
Objective: Supplemental
Reference: 640

23

You and a fellow patroller respond to a snowboard injury in a 12-year-old boy who fell on his outstretched arm. His left wrist is swollen and ecchymotic. A radial pulse is readily palpated, and the skin on the hand is warm to the touch. Which of the following instructions to your partner indicates that you have a proper understanding of the care for this patient’s arm?

a. “After we splint his wrist, we will need to apply a sling and swathe to prevent further movement.”
b. “When you splint that arm, make sure that it is somewhat loose so the patient can move it if he becomes uncomfortable.”
c. “Make sure to wrap that splint as tightly as you can; we need a lot of pressure to prevent additional swelling.”
d. “Since he still has a pulse in the arm, the swelling must be from a muscle injury. We can forego the splint and just apply ice packs.”

a. “After we splint his wrist, we will need to apply a sling and swathe to prevent further movement.”
b. “When you splint that arm, make sure that it is somewhat loose so the patient can move it if he becomes uncomfortable.”
c. “Make sure to wrap that splint as tightly as you can; we need a lot of pressure to prevent additional swelling.”
d. “Since he still has a pulse in the arm, the swelling must be from a muscle injury. We can forego the splint and just apply ice packs.”

Answer: a
Objective: Supplemental
Reference: 640

24

You are working in the first-aid room when a patient arrives with an open injury of the left lower leg. Which of the following observations would indicate that the extremity was improperly splinted?

a. The splint has immobilized the ankle, knee, and hip regions.
b. Ice packs wrapped in towels have been applied to the skin between the splints.
c. The patient is able to flex her left ankle when directed to do so.
d. The skin of the left foot is red and swollen and a pedal pulse is present.

a. The splint has immobilized the ankle, knee, and hip regions.
b. Ice packs wrapped in towels have been applied to the skin between the splints.
c. The patient is able to flex her left ankle when directed to do so.
d. The skin of the left foot is red and swollen and a pedal pulse is present.

Answer: c
Objective: Supplemental
Reference: 667

25

A patient exhibits swelling and deformity to the wrist. Which of the following positions for the hand is most appropriate when splinting this injury?

a. Fingers curled slightly down around a roller bandage
b. Fingers extended and spread
c. Hand in a fist with the thumb inside the fist
d. Wrist flexed with fingers extended


a. Fingers curled slightly down around a roller bandage
b. Fingers extended and spread
c. Hand in a fist with the thumb inside the fist
d. Wrist flexed with fingers extended

Answer: a
Objective: Supplemental
Reference: 656

26

Which of the following statements indicates that an OEC Technician has a good understanding of the proper care of a possible joint dislocation?

a. “If a joint injury is suspected, ice packs, but not splints, are indicated.”
b. “The care for a patient with a joint injury is similar to that for a fracture.”
c. “If a distal pulse is absent, three attempts to straighten the joint can be made.”
d. “Warm packs, not cold packs, are indicated for a patient with a possible joint injury.”

a. “If a joint injury is suspected, ice packs, but not splints, are indicated.”
b. “The care for a patient with a joint injury is similar to that for a fracture.”
c. “If a distal pulse is absent, three attempts to straighten the joint can be made.”
d. “Warm packs, not cold packs, are indicated for a patient with a possible joint injury.”

Answer: b
Objective: 20-3
Reference: 602

27

Which of the following assessment findings contraindicates the use of a traction splint to treat a femur injury?

a. A gross deformity of the hip that indicates dislocation
b. Decreased pedal pulse rate
c. Numbness in the foot
d. An open fracture

a. A gross deformity of the hip that indicates dislocation
b. Decreased pedal pulse rate
c. Numbness in the foot
d. An open fracture

Answer: a
Objective: Supplemental
Reference: 644

28

Which of the following statements about traction splints is correct?

a. Once a traction splint has been positioned under the leg, you attach the ankle hitch and then manual traction can be released.
b. Mechanical traction should be applied until the affected leg is approximately 1–2 inches longer than the unaffected leg.
c. Manual traction should be applied until the mechanical traction is at least equal to the manual traction.
d. Once the mechanical traction has been applied, the ischial strap must be released to promote circulation in the affected leg.

a. Once a traction splint has been positioned under the leg, you attach the ankle hitch and then manual traction can be released.
b. Mechanical traction should be applied until the affected leg is approximately 1–2 inches longer than the unaffected leg.
c. Manual traction should be applied until the mechanical traction is at least equal to the manual traction.
d. Once the mechanical traction has been applied, the ischial strap must be released to promote circulation in the affected leg.

Answer: c
Objective: Supplemental
Reference: 661

29

Which of the following functions is not one of the several functions of bones?

a. Providing structure and form for body tissues
b. Protecting vital organs
c. Responding to sensory nerve stimulation to protect skin and other tissues
d. Producing red blood cells

a. Providing structure and form for body tissues
b. Protecting vital organs
c. Responding to sensory nerve stimulation to protect skin and other tissues
d. Producing red blood cells

Answer: c
Objective: 20-1
Reference: 603

30

Displacement of the bones of a joint is known as:

a. a dislocation.
b. a fracture.
c. circumduction.
d. dorsiflexion.

a. a dislocation.
b. a fracture.
c. circumduction.
d. dorsiflexion.

Answer: a
Objective: 20-8
Reference: 615

31

You are discussing a sling and swathe while teaching an OEC class about splints. Which of the following statements regarding a sling and swathe is correct?

a. It is used to immobilize injuries to either the upper extremity or the lower extremity.
b. It provides a stable platform for the arm and can be used to immobilize either the arm alone or the arm with a separate splint in place.
c. It is the second most commonly used splint by OEC Technicians.
d. There is only one way to properly apply a sling and swathe.

a. It is used to immobilize injuries to either the upper extremity or the lower extremity.
b. It provides a stable platform for the arm and can be used to immobilize either the arm alone or the arm with a separate splint in place.
c. It is the second most commonly used splint by OEC Technicians.
d. There is only one way to properly apply a sling and swathe.

Answer: b
Objective: Supplemental
Reference: 640

32

A patient for whom you recently provided care stops by to thank you. He reports that he was diagnosed with a strain to his lower right leg. Which of the following structures is the primary structure affected in that injury?

a. A joint
b. A ligament
c. A muscle
d. A bone

a. A joint
b. A ligament
c. A muscle
d. A bone

Answer: c
Objective: 20-1
Reference: 612

33

A fracture that has three or more fragments is called a(n):

a. impacted fracture.
b. comminuted fracture.
c. oblique fracture.
d. pathologic fracture.

a. impacted fracture.
b. comminuted fracture.
c. oblique fracture.
d. pathologic fracture.

Answer: b
Objective: 20-6
Reference: 615

34

The National Ski Patrol’s current recommendation regarding ski boot removal when applying a traction splint is:

a. that removal is determined by the weather conditions and the extent of the patient’s injuries.
b. to leave the boot on until you have at least two other patrollers to help with its removal.
c. that removal should occur in a warm environment, so it should occur as soon as possible after you reach the first aid room.
d. to leave the boot on if the patient is to be placed in a traction splint in the outdoor environment, unless the local medical director approves doing otherwise.

a. that removal is determined by the weather conditions and the extent of the patient’s injuries.
b. to leave the boot on until you have at least two other patrollers to help with its removal.
c. that removal should occur in a warm environment, so it should occur as soon as possible after you reach the first aid room.
d. to leave the boot on if the patient is to be placed in a traction splint in the outdoor environment, unless the local medical director approves doing otherwise.

Answer: d
Objective: Supplemental
Reference: 670

35

The inside layer of a joint capsule where cells make a viscous fluid for lubricating the joint is the:

a. synovium.
b. cartilage.
c. callus.
d. fascia.

a. synovium.
b. cartilage.
c. callus.
d. fascia.

Answer: a
Objective: 20-1
Reference: 606

36

Joints provide different degrees of movement. There are five different types of joints. An example of a “pivot” joints is the:

a. radio-ulnar joint of the elbow.
b. vertebrae of the spine.
c. acromio-clavicular joint of the shoulder.
d. knee.

a. radio-ulnar joint of the elbow.
b. vertebrae of the spine.
c. acromio-clavicular joint of the shoulder.
d. knee.

Answer: a
Objective: 20-1
Reference: 607

37

You respond to an accident and find a young man lying prone but in a neutral, anatomic position, except that his head is turned to the side. Using the principles of Jams and Pretzels, you would say that this patient is in position:

a. 2A.
b. 3A.
c. 3.
d. 1A.

a. 2A.
b. 3A.
c. 3.
d. 1A.

Answer: c
Objective: Supplemental
Reference: 673

38

The most frequent injury in skiing is a:

a. concussion.
b. knee sprain.
c. thumb strain.
d. fractured radius.

a. concussion.
b. knee sprain.
c. thumb strain.
d. fractured radius.

Answer: b
Objective: 20-7
Reference: 632

39

The most commonly broken bone in the body is:

a. the ulna.
b. the clavicle.
c. the tibia.
d. a rib.

a. the ulna.
b. the clavicle.
c. the tibia.
d. a rib.

Answer: b
Objective: 20-7
Reference: 624

40

Your friend tells you that he wants to try snowboarding. He is concerned about his safety and asks you which type of fracture is most common in snowboarders. You learned in your OEC training that this injury involves the:

a. humerus.
b. elbow.
c. tibia.
d. radius.

a. humerus.
b. elbow.
c. tibia.
d. radius.

Answer: d
Objective: 20-7
Reference: 626

41

Which of the following statements would you make to the parent of a 10-year-old snowboarder who took a hard fall and complains of some discomfort in a wrist that is slightly swollen but has no deformity?

a. “It’s probably just a sprain.”
b. “It could be a nondisplaced fracture.”
c. “This is probably a pathologic fracture.”
d. “This looks like an open fracture.”

a. “It’s probably just a sprain.”
b. “It could be a nondisplaced fracture.”
c. “This is probably a pathologic fracture.”
d. “This looks like an open fracture.”

Answer: b
Objective: 20-7
Reference: 613

42

A fracture of a bone will cause bleeding, and a hematoma forms around the fracture site. Over the next several weeks, this hematoma organizes into a substance called:

a. a callus.
b. calcium.
c. cartilage.
d. a synovium.

a. a callus.
b. calcium.
c. cartilage.
d. a synovium.

Answer: a
Objective: 20-3
Reference: 610

43

Which of the following musculoskeletal tissues does not heal?

a. A tendon
b. A ligament
c. A muscle
d. A cartilage

a. A tendon
b. A ligament
c. A muscle
d. A cartilage

Answer: d
Objective: 20-3
Reference: 610

44

An airplane splint is useful for immobilizing certain types of musculoskeletal injuries. Which of the following statements concerning an airplane splint is not correct?

a. It can be used to immobilize either shoulder injuries or knee injuries.
b. It is considered a rigid splint.
c. It is used only for injuries that must be maintained at a 90-degree angle.
d. It is generally considered more difficult to use than a blanket roll.

a. It can be used to immobilize either shoulder injuries or knee injuries.
b. It is considered a rigid splint.
c. It is used only for injuries that must be maintained at a 90-degree angle.
d. It is generally considered more difficult to use than a blanket roll.

Answer: c
Objective: Supplemental
Reference: 650

45

In order to make a SAM splint™ a “rigid” splint, you need to:

a. use it in combination with a wooden splint.
b. make a “T” shape lengthwise in its middle.
c. fold it in a double thickness.
d. use it in a sugar-tong configuration.

a. use it in combination with a wooden splint.
b. make a “T” shape lengthwise in its middle.
c. fold it in a double thickness.
d. use it in a sugar-tong configuration.

Answer: b
Objective: Supplemental
Reference: 644

46

You are demonstrating boot removal to a class of OEC candidates. While explaining Rescuer #1’s role, you indicate that his first task is to:

a. unbuckle or unlace the boot.
b. check the patient’s CMS.
c. stabilize the patient’s leg and ankle.
d. remove the boot.

a. unbuckle or unlace the boot.
b. check the patient’s CMS.
c. stabilize the patient’s leg and ankle.
d. remove the boot.

Answer: c
Objective: Supplemental
Reference: 671

47

The structure responsible for transmitting the force of a contracting skeletal muscle to a bone is a:

a. tendon.
b. ligament.
c. cartilage.
d. joint.

a. tendon.
b. ligament.
c. cartilage.
d. joint.

Answer: a
Objective: 20-1
Reference: 609

48

While you are putting wood into your wood stove, your hand comes in contact with the hot surface. Your body responds by pulling your hand away from the heat. How is this action accomplished?

a. One or more skeletal muscles receive a signal from the brain to contract.
b. The smooth muscles in the arm automatically respond to heat.
c. You use conscious thought to pull your hand from the heat.
d. Extension of the ligaments in the elbow joint pulls the lower arm up.

a. One or more skeletal muscles receive a signal from the brain to contract.
b. The smooth muscles in the arm automatically respond to heat.
c. You use conscious thought to pull your hand from the heat.
d. Extension of the ligaments in the elbow joint pulls the lower arm up.

Answer: a
Objective: 20-2
Reference: 608

49

The ideal position for patients before you transfer them to a long spine board for immobilization is:

a. on one side in a neutral anatomic position, with the back straight, the eyes facing forward, and the extremities straight with the palms against the sides of the thighs.
b. prone in a neutral anatomic position, with the back straight, the eyes facing forward, and the extremities straight with the palms against the sides of the thighs.
c. on one side in a neutral anatomic position, with the back straight, the eyes facing forward, the lower arm extended above the head, and the upper arm at the side with the palm against the thigh.
d. supine, in a neutral anatomic position, with the back straight, the eyes facing forward, and the extremities straight with the palms against the thighs.

a. on one side in a neutral anatomic position, with the back straight, the eyes facing forward, and the extremities straight with the palms against the sides of the thighs.
b. prone in a neutral anatomic position, with the back straight, the eyes facing forward, and the extremities straight with the palms against the sides of the thighs.
c. on one side in a neutral anatomic position, with the back straight, the eyes facing forward, the lower arm extended above the head, and the upper arm at the side with the palm against the thigh.
d. supine, in a neutral anatomic position, with the back straight, the eyes facing forward, and the extremities straight with the palms against the thighs.

Answer: d
Objective: Supplemental
Reference: 673

50

You are working with a candidate OEC Technician who is practicing the application of splints. When checking the sling and swathe that the candidate applied to an upper extremity, you note that it is not applied correctly. You point this out to the candidate and tell him that the purpose of a sling and swathe is to:

a. hold an injured arm up so that the patient doesn’t need to support it.
b. prevent further movement of an injured extremity.
c. hold a wooden splint in place.
d. prevent the patient from using an injured arm when getting into a toboggan.

a. hold an injured arm up so that the patient doesn’t need to support it.
b. prevent further movement of an injured extremity.
c. hold a wooden splint in place.
d. prevent the patient from using an injured arm when getting into a toboggan.

Answer: b
Objective: Supplemental
Reference: 640

51

An air splint is a dual-walled, tube-shaped device used to temporarily immobilize a long bone. Which of the following statements about air splints is false?

a. They may help control bleeding by applying constant, external pressure to a wound.
b. They are most often used to immobilize injuries located distal to the elbow or the knee.
c. They are inexpensive and easier to clean than other types of splints.
d. They are made of a tough fibrous material that is difficult to puncture.

a. They may help control bleeding by applying constant, external pressure to a wound.
b. They are most often used to immobilize injuries located distal to the elbow or the knee.
c. They are inexpensive and easier to clean than other types of splints.
d. They are made of a tough fibrous material that is difficult to puncture.

Answer: d
Objective: Supplemental
Reference: 641

52

You are caring for a patient who has an angulated lower leg fracture. To splint this injury you should:

a. use gentle longitudinal tension to align the fracture.
b. apply 5–10 lbs of traction by pulling on the patient’s foot.
c. splint the leg in the position found.
d. apply an air splint, which when inflated will align the leg.

a. use gentle longitudinal tension to align the fracture.
b. apply 5–10 lbs of traction by pulling on the patient’s foot.
c. splint the leg in the position found.
d. apply an air splint, which when inflated will align the leg.

Answer: a
Objective: Supplemental
Reference: 647, 666

53

You are caring for a 26-year-old woman with a probable wrist fracture. Before applying a splint you ask her to remove her large engagement ring. She hesitates and asks why she should do this. Which of the following responses would be an OEC Technician’s best response?

a. “The metal in the ring will interfere with taking X-rays at the hospital.”
b. “You don’t want to lose your ring when they are caring for you at the hospital.”
c. “You should remove the ring now because your fingers may become very swollen.”
d. “The diamond could get caught in the splint and ruin the ring.”

a. “The metal in the ring will interfere with taking X-rays at the hospital.”
b. “You don’t want to lose your ring when they are caring for you at the hospital.”
c. “You should remove the ring now because your fingers may become very swollen.”
d. “The diamond could get caught in the splint and ruin the ring.”

Answer: c
Objective: Supplemental
Reference: 650

54

One method for immobilizing a clavicle fracture is a figure eight splint. Which of the following statements about a figure eight splint is false?

a. It is used to immobilize fractures of the proximal and middle thirds of the clavicle.
b. It should not be used for fractures of the lateral one-third of the clavicle.
c. This splint may immobilize the clavicle better than a sling and swathe does.
d. This splint is useful for acromioclavicular (A/C) injuries.

a. It is used to immobilize fractures of the proximal and middle thirds of the clavicle.
b. It should not be used for fractures of the lateral one-third of the clavicle.
c. This splint may immobilize the clavicle better than a sling and swathe does.
d. This splint is useful for acromioclavicular (A/C) injuries.

Answer: d
Objective: Supplemental
Reference: 652

55

To properly apply a figure eight splint, an OEC Technician should:

a. tighten the cravats so that the position of the shoulders is the same as if the patient were sitting normally.
b. not use a cravat that is wider than 1 inch.
c. place the cravat directly over the fracture to splint it.
d. tighten the figure eight until the patient’s shoulders are pulled back tightly.

a. tighten the cravats so that the position of the shoulders is the same as if the patient were sitting normally.
b. not use a cravat that is wider than 1 inch.
c. place the cravat directly over the fracture to splint it.
d. tighten the figure eight until the patient’s shoulders are pulled back tightly.

Answer: a
Objective: Supplemental
Reference: 652

56

You and a fellow patroller are applying a blanket roll to a 48-year-old patient with an anteriorly dislocated shoulder. While your partner holds the blanket roll in position under the affected shoulder, which of the following actions should you not take in securing the roll?

a. Tie one of the cravats over the patient’s opposite shoulder and around the neck.
b. Tie one of the cravats over the affected shoulder.
c. Stabilize the patient’s hand and forearm on the blanket using two cravats.
d. Tie one of the cravats around the patient’s waist.

a. Tie one of the cravats over the patient’s opposite shoulder and around the neck.
b. Tie one of the cravats over the affected shoulder.
c. Stabilize the patient’s hand and forearm on the blanket using two cravats.
d. Tie one of the cravats around the patient’s waist.

Answer: b
Objective: Supplemental
Reference: 653

57

You are evaluating a new OEC instructor who is teaching a class on displaced humerus fractures. Which of the following statements by the instructor would require your correction?

a. “Gentle longitudinal tension should be applied down from the shoulder in line with the normal axis of the humerus while the upper arm lies along the side of the patient’s body.”
b. “The patient’s forearm should be placed with the elbow at a 90-degree angle and in contact with the patient’s abdomen.”
c. “The fracture should be reduced to achieve better pain control and packaging.”
d. “The splint should be long enough to reach the distal palm crease, which immobilizes the wrist.”

a. “Gentle longitudinal tension should be applied down from the shoulder in line with the normal axis of the humerus while the upper arm lies along the side of the patient’s body.”
b. “The patient’s forearm should be placed with the elbow at a 90-degree angle and in contact with the patient’s abdomen.”
c. “The fracture should be reduced to achieve better pain control and packaging.”
d. “The splint should be long enough to reach the distal palm crease, which immobilizes the wrist.”

Answer: c
Objective: Supplemental
Reference: 654

58

When it becomes apparent that the arm distal to an elbow injury has a CMS deficit, OEC Technicians should:

a. attempt to realign the injury when final definitive care by a physician is less than two hours away.
b. splint the arm with the elbow slightly flexed.
c. use only a sling so that no pressure that further compromises CMS is put on the elbow.
d. make one attempt to realign and restore CMS before splinting.

a. attempt to realign the injury when final definitive care by a physician is less than two hours away.
b. splint the arm with the elbow slightly flexed.
c. use only a sling so that no pressure that further compromises CMS is put on the elbow.
d. make one attempt to realign and restore CMS before splinting.

Answer: d
Objective: Supplemental
Reference: 655

59

Which of the following splints should not be used to treat proximal forearm fractures?

a. A ladder splint that goes up to the axilla and down to the palm crease
b. A splint that prevents rotation of the forearm at the elbow
c. A sugar tong splint wrapped around the elbow and extending down to the palm crease
d. A splint that does not immobilize the elbow

a. A ladder splint that goes up to the axilla and down to the palm crease
b. A splint that prevents rotation of the forearm at the elbow
c. A sugar tong splint wrapped around the elbow and extending down to the palm crease
d. A splint that does not immobilize the elbow

Answer: d
Objective: Supplemental
Reference: 656

60

Which of the following statements about the axial skeleton is true?

a. It has 60 bones consisting of the skull, vertebrae, and thoracic cage.
b. It has 80 bones consisting of the skull, vertebrae, and pelvis.
c. It has 80 bones consisting of the skull, vertebrae, and thoracic cage.
d. It has 126 bones consisting of the skill, vertebrae, and pelvis.

a. It has 60 bones consisting of the skull, vertebrae, and thoracic cage.
b. It has 80 bones consisting of the skull, vertebrae, and pelvis.
c. It has 80 bones consisting of the skull, vertebrae, and thoracic cage.
d. It has 126 bones consisting of the skill, vertebrae, and pelvis.

Answer: c
Objective: 20-1
Reference: 604

61

Which of the following statements about the appendicular skeleton is true?

a. It has 80 bones consisting of the shoulder, arm, pelvis, and legs.
b. It has 126 bones consisting of the shoulder, arm, pelvis, and rib cage.
c. It has 126 bones consisting of the arm, pelvis, rib cage, and legs.
d. It has 126 bones consisting of the shoulder, arm, pelvis, and legs.

a. It has 80 bones consisting of the shoulder, arm, pelvis, and legs.
b. It has 126 bones consisting of the shoulder, arm, pelvis, and rib cage.
c. It has 126 bones consisting of the arm, pelvis, rib cage, and legs.
d. It has 126 bones consisting of the shoulder, arm, pelvis, and legs.

Answer: d
Objective: 20-1
Reference: 604

62

Which of the following terms does not describe a type of bone?

a. Long
b. Short
c. Flat
d. Irregular

a. Long
b. Short
c. Flat
d. Irregular

Answer: b
Objective: 20-1
Reference: 604

63

Which of the following splints should not be used for a wrist fracture?

a. A Thomas Splint
b. A SAM splint™
c. An air splint
d. A soft splint

a. A Thomas Splint
b. A SAM splint™
c. An air splint
d. A soft splint

Answer: a
Objective: Supplemental
Reference: 645, 646

64

The outermost part of a bone is a tough lining known as:

a. the cortex.
b. articular cartilage.
c. synovium.
d. the periosteum.

a. the cortex.
b. articular cartilage.
c. synovium.
d. the periosteum.

Answer: d
Objective: 20-1
Reference: 604

65

Which of the following terms does not describe a type of joint?

a. Ball and socket
b. Hinge
c. Gliding
d. Post

a. Ball and socket
b. Hinge
c. Gliding
d. Post

Answer: d
Objective: 20-1
Reference: 607

66

Which of the following pairs of proteins causes muscle tissue to shorten or contract?

a. Glutamine and glycine
b. Actin and myosin
c. Leucine and lysine
d. Alanine and arginine

a. Glutamine and glycine
b. Actin and myosin
c. Leucine and lysine
d. Alanine and arginine

Answer: b
Objective 20-1
Reference: 608

67

A sling and swathe can be used for a:

a. potential wrist fracture without the need for a separate splint.
b. rib fracture.
c. humerus fracture if combined with a separate splint.
d. potential ulna fracture without the need for a separate splint.

a. potential wrist fracture without the need for a separate splint.
b. rib fracture.
c. humerus fracture if combined with a separate splint.
d. potential ulna fracture without the need for a separate splint.

Answer: c
Objective: Supplemental
Reference: 640

68

A vacuum splint works because:

a. the splint becomes rigid when air is sucked out of it.
b. air expands the beads, forming a rigid splint.
c. air causes a chemical reaction involving the beads inside, causing the unit to become rigid.
d. temperature changes to the inside air space cause the unit to shrink and become rigid.

a. the splint becomes rigid when air is sucked out of it.
b. air expands the beads, forming a rigid splint.
c. air causes a chemical reaction involving the beads inside, causing the unit to become rigid.
d. temperature changes to the inside air space cause the unit to shrink and become rigid.

Answer: a
Objective: Supplemental
Reference: 641

69

An airplane splint works well because:

a. it is waterproof and thus suitable for outdoor use.
b. it can be moved to conform to the angle of any injured joint.
c. its design provides traction.
d. it is a rigid, fixed stabilizing unit.

a. it is waterproof and thus suitable for outdoor use.
b. it can be moved to conform to the angle of any injured joint.
c. its design provides traction.
d. it is a rigid, fixed stabilizing unit.

Answer: d
Objective: Supplemental
Reference: 643

70

Treatment of an anterior S/C dislocation is best managed using a:

a. figure eight splint.
b. blanket roll.
c. rigid splint.
d. sling and swathe.

a. figure eight splint.
b. blanket roll.
c. rigid splint.
d. sling and swathe.

Answer: d
Objective: Supplemental
Reference: 653

71

Should a fractured humerus be splinted using a soft splint and a sling and swathe?

a. Yes
b. No

a. Yes
b. No

Answer: b
Objective: Supplemental
Reference: 654

72

Because of the abundant blood vessels and nerves in the elbow, an injury to a child’s elbow should be splinted in:

a. the position found.
b. a 90-degree angle.
c. a 45-degree angle.
d. an elevated position using a blanket roll.

a. the position found.
b. a 90-degree angle.
c. a 45-degree angle.
d. an elevated position using a blanket roll.

Answer: a
Objective: Supplemental
Reference: 654

73

The finding that upon muscle contraction the active motion of a joint is reduced or completely lost suggests:

a. a dislocation.
b. a ligament strain.
c. torn cartilage.
d. a ruptured tendon.

a. a dislocation.
b. a ligament strain.
c. torn cartilage.
d. a ruptured tendon.

Answer: d
Objective: 20-4
Reference: 613

74

An injured forearm should be cradled in a sling:

a. with the splinted extremity elevated at the level of the clavicle.
b. with its weight evenly distributed.
c. at a 45-degree angle to the chest.
d. at the same level as the elbow.

a. with the splinted extremity elevated at the level of the clavicle.
b. with its weight evenly distributed.
c. at a 45-degree angle to the chest.
d. at the same level as the elbow.

Answer: b
Objective: Supplemental
Reference: 650

75

Care of an anterior dislocated shoulder:

a. is easier than is care for any other upper extremity injury.
b. requires only a sling and swathe to keep the arm in the position found.
c. requires patience and sometimes creativity.
d. can be achieved using a quick splint.

a. is easier than is care for any other upper extremity injury.
b. requires only a sling and swathe to keep the arm in the position found.
c. requires patience and sometimes creativity.
d. can be achieved using a quick splint.

Answer: c
Objective: Supplemental
Reference: 653

76

Can a Colles’ fracture or “silver fork” wrist fracture result from falling on a clenched fist?

a. Yes
b. No

a. Yes
b. No

Answer: b
Objective: 20-4
Reference: 627

77

A common injury among snowboarders who fall forward on an outstretched hand is a fractured:

a. scaphoid.
b. ulna.
c. radius.
d. thumb.

a. scaphoid.
b. ulna.
c. radius.
d. thumb.

Answer: a
Objective: 20-4
Reference: 627

78

A snowboarder’s fall over the toe side of the board onto an outstretched hand is known as the:

a. “drop back.”
b. “twist.”
c. “dog drag.”
d. “mousetrap.”

a. “drop back.”
b. “twist.”
c. “dog drag.”
d. “mousetrap.”

Answer: d
Objective 20-6
Reference: 627

79

You are dispatched to aid a snowboarder who has sustained a shoulder injury. The injured man is sitting on the side of the trail and reports that because of past dislocations of the shoulder he has a subluxation, and that the shoulder is okay. Which of the following statements best describes his condition?

a. The shoulder has become dislocated but with can be managed with prescription pain drugs.
b. The shoulder has an anterior dislocation.
c. The shoulder has a posterior dislocation.
d. The shoulder joint partially dislocates and then returns to a normal anatomic position.

a. The shoulder has become dislocated but with can be managed with prescription pain drugs.
b. The shoulder has an anterior dislocation.
c. The shoulder has a posterior dislocation.
d. The shoulder joint partially dislocates and then returns to a normal anatomic position.

Answer: d
Objective: Supplemental
Reference: 616

80

A former patient returns to the Ski Patrol treatment room to thank you for the treatment he received. He informs you that he has a popiteal fossa injury. With your OEC knowledge, you realize that his injury is related to which of the following structures?

a. The ankle
b. The back of the knee
c. The wrist
d. The lumbar muscles

a. The ankle
b. The back of the knee
c. The wrist
d. The lumbar muscles

Answer: b
Objective: Supplemental
Reference: 633