Chapter 21 Flashcards Preview

World History 9 > Chapter 21 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 21 Deck (90):
0

Led the way for the Second Industrial Revolution which transformed the economies of the Western World

The 20th Century

1

During the first Industrial Revolution ______ was the world"/ sole industrial giant

Britain

2

The two countries that led to industrial leadership were

Germany and the United States

3

Independently developed a new process for making steel from iron

William Kelly and Henry Bessemer

4

It removed carbon from steel making it lighter, harder, and more durable than iron, it could also be predicted cheaply

Bessemer Process

5

Became the major material used in tools, bridges, and railroads and steel production soared in industrialized countries

Steel

6

Invented dynamite-which was a much safer explosive material to use compared to others at the time

Alfred Nobel

7

Made Nobel extremely wealthy and thus funded the famous Nobel prizes to innovators, engineers, pioneers of their day

Dynamite

8

Developed the first battery around the year 1800

Alessandro Volta

9

Created the first simple electric motor and the first dynamo

Michael Faraday

10

Is a machine that generates electricity

Dynamo

11

Made the first electric light bulb in the 1870s

Thomas Edison

12

By the 1890s ____ carried electrical power from dynamos to factories

Cables

13

Are intentional components that could be used in place of one another

Interchangeable parts

14

Parts were added to a product as it moved down a belt from one workstation to the next

Assembly line

15

During the Industrial revolution, ____________________ were transformed by technology

Transportation and Communication

16

Replaced sailing ships and the building of railroads boomed

Steamed Ships

17

Invented gasoline powered internal combustion engine

Nikolaus Otto

18

Received a patent for the first automobile (had only 3 wheels)

Karl Benz

19

Introduced the first four wheel automobile

Gottlieb Daimler

20

Started making models that reached the breathtaking speed of 25 miles per hour and also utilized the assembly line to mass-produce cars making the U.S. the leader in the automobile industry

Henry Ford

21

Designed and flew an airplane at Kitty Hawk (NC)

Orville and Wilbur Wright

22

Created the telegraph

Samuel F.B. Morse

23

This machine could send coded messages over wires by means of electricity

Telegraph

24

The first telegraph line went from

Washington D.C. and Baltimore

25

An undersea cable was relaying messages between Europe and North America called

Trans-Atlantic Cable

26

Patented the telephone

Alexander Graham Bell

27

Had experimented with the "wireless" transmissions

Nikola Tesla

28

Invented the radio

Guglielmo Marconi

29

New Technologies required the investment of

Large amounts of money (or capital)

30

Are shared in their companies to people called investors

Stock

31

Are business that are owned by many investors who buy shares of stock

Corporations

32

Had begun during the 1700s continued through the 1800s

Population explosion

33

Population increased due to

Death rate being declined drastically and medical advances and improvements in public sanitation also slowed death rates

34

Scientists theorized that certain microbes might cause specific infectious diseases, this was called

Germ theory

35

Showed the relationship between microbes and disease. Made contributions to medicine, including the development of vaccinations against rabies and anthrax. Also discover a process called pasteurization that killed disease-carrying microbes in milk

Louis Pasteur

36

Was the first used to relieve pain during surgery. Allowed doctors to experiment with operations that had never before been possible

Anesthesia

37

Was an army nurse during the Crimean War, and she insisted on better hygiene in field hospitals

Florence Nightingale

38

Altered the basic layout of European cities

Growing wealth and industrialization

39

Rebuilding of the poor areas of the city took place in Paris in the 1850s

Urban renewal

40

Chief planner for Napoleon III destroyed many tangled medieval streets full of tenements housing and in their place he built wide boulevards and splendid public buildings

George Haussmann

41

Made urban areas much more livable

Paved Streets

42

Were created and eventually electric street lights illuminated the night, increasing safety

Glass Lamps

43

Cities also created _____________ for safety

Police and fire departments

44

Pioneered a new struct, the skyscraper

Louis Sullivan

45

Despite efforts to improve cities, urban life remained _____ harsh for the poor

Harsh

46

Were self-help groups to aid the sick or injured workers

Mutual-aid societies

47

By the late 1800s most Western countries had granted

All men the right to vote

48

The main tactic of these unions was to

Strike or work stoppage

49

Was often a result of strikers, particularly if employees tired to continue operating their business without the striking workers

Violence

50

Measures the quality and availability of necessities of and comfort in society improved (even though their were many hardships)

Standard of Living

51

Emerged by the late 1800's

New Social Class

52

Included very rich business people

Upper class

53

The highest people on this social ladder was

Mid level business people and professionals such as doctors and scientist

54

The lower middle, included

Teachers and office worker

55

Were at the base of the social ladder

Workers and peasants

56

Spent their time rising children, direction servants, and doing religious or charitable services

Women

57

Supported a cult of domesticity-that idealized women and the home

Books, magazines, and popular songs

58

Was a campaign to limit or bam the use of alcoholic beverages

Temperance movement

59

Among Men some __________ supported women's suffrage

Liberals and Socialist

60

Developed the atomic theory. Showed that each element had its own kind of atoms. Also showed how different kinds of atoms combine to make all chemical substances

John Dalton

61

A russian chemists drew a table that grouped elements according to their atomic weights

Dmitri Mendeleyev

62

Stated that "nobody ever helps me into carriages, or over mud pebbles, or gives me any best place! And ain't I a women?"

Sojourner Truth

63

Reformed persuaded many government to set up _______ and require basic education for all children

Public schools

64

In England schooling girls and boys between ages of ________ became a law

5-10

65

Students would learn about "classical languages" Latin and Greek, history and math but in general only middle class families could afford to have their sons attend these schools because they trained for more serious study or for government jobs

Secondary Schools

66

Educations for them did not include subjects such as science, mathematics, or physical educations because they were not seen as necessary subjects for them to learn

Girls

67

Students who came from middle or upper class families

Colleges and Universities expanded in this period because of

68

Trained student who would have the knowledge and skills to build the new industrial society

Engineering Schools

69

Published his work called "On the Origin of Species". Argued that all form of life, including human beings have evolved into their present state over millions of years

Charles Darwin

70

Encourage racism, the unscientific belief that one racial group is superior to another

Social Darwinism

71

In this religious movement Many Protestant church has to back to the social gospel -which is urged Christians to social services. Campaigned for reforms in housing,healthcare, and education

Social Gospel

72

William Wordsworth, William Blake, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Percy Bysshe Shelley and others became part of a cultural movement. From 1750-1850. Is the artistic style emphasizing imagination, freedom, and emotion

Romanticism

73

Used simple, direct language, intense feelings, and a glorification of nature

Romantic writers

74

He was a mysterious melancholy figure who felt out of step with society

Hero

75

Quoted "my joys, my grief, my passions, and my powers. Made me a stranger". Was a larger than life figure that was equal to the characters he wrote about

Lord Byron

76

Novels and ballads evoked the turbulent history of Scottish clans or medieval knights

Sir Walter Scott

77

Re-created France's past in novels like the Three Musketeers and the Hunchback of Notre Dame

Alexandre Dumas and Victor Hugo

78

It was an attempt to represent the world as it was, without the sentiment, associated with romanticism. Artists often focused their work on the harsh side of life in cities or villages

Realism

79

Vividly portrayed the lives of sly,s dweller and factory workers, including children

Charles Dickens

80

Tells the story of a nine year old orphan raised in a grim poor house

Oliver Twist

81

Moves form romantic to realistic novel. Revealed how hunger drove a god man to crime and how the law hound him after his work "Les Miserables"

Victor Hugo

82

They rejected the romantic emphasis on imagination and focus on ordinary subjects, especially working class men and women

Painters

83

Improved on earlier technologies to produce successful photographs

Louis Daguerre and William Fox Talbot

84

Preserved vivid realistic record of the corpse-strewn battlefields

Matthew B Brady

85

A new movement occurred in Paris during the 1870s

Impressionism

86

Brushed strokes of color side without any blending

Claude Monet and Edgar Degas

87

Arranged small dots of color to defame the shapes of objects

George Seurat

88

Experimented with sharp brush lines and bright colors. His unique brushwork created dreamlike quality to everyday subjects j

Vincent Van Gogh

89

Developed a bold personality style to his paintings, looked flat and resembled "primitive folk art". His type of art evoked intense feelings

Paul Gauguin