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became king of Spain,and thereby ruler of the Spanish colonies in the Americas

Charles I


he became heir to the sprawling Hapsburg empire, which included the Holy Roman Empire and the Netherlands

Charles V


Under the _____, ottoman forces advanced across Central Europe to the walls surrounding Vienna, Australia



He divided his empire, leaving the Hapsburg Lands in Central Europe to his brother Ferdinand (who became the Holy Roman Emperor)

Charles V


Charles V gave Spain , the Netherlands, and some southern Italian states and Spain overseas empire to his 29 year old son named



ruled for 42 years and expanded Spanish Influence strengthened the Catholic Church, and made his own power absolute (in part to silver from the Spanish colonies). also centralized power, he was devout and ambitious­ he devoted most of his time to government work

Philip II


a ruler with complete authority over the government and the lives of the people

Absolute Monarch


Philip fought many wars as he attempted to advance Spanish Catholic power

Battles in the Mediterranean and Netherlands


Spain and its Italian allies soundly defeated an Ottoman fleet off the coast of Greece

Battle of Lepanto


She secretly supported the Dutch against against Spain. She encouraged English Captains such as Francis Drake (known as sea dogs)­ to
plunder Spanish Treasure ships and loot Spanish cities in the Americas

Queen Elizabethb


sailed with more than 130 ships, 20,000 men, and 2,400 pieces of artillery­ they were confident with victory­ this did not pass the English Channel, lumbering Spanish ships were outmaneuvered by the lighter faster English ships, the armada scattered and limped home in defeat

Spanish Armada


was an enthusiastic patron of the arts and also founded academies of science and mathematics



was born a peasant as birth­wrote more than 1,500 plays including witty comedies and action­packed romances

Lope de Vega


was the most important writer of Spain’s golden age ­ he wrote Don Quixote

Miguel de Cervantes


which pokes fun at medieval tales of chivalry and is considered to be Europe’s first modern novel

Don Quixote


when henry IV was killed by an assassin in 1610 his ninger year son Louis XIII inherited the throne­ (for a time nobles asserted their power)­ than in 1624 Louis appointed Cardinal Richelieu­ as chief minister­ for the next 18 years he devoted to strengthening the central government

Cardinal Richelieu


spend many hours each day attending the government affairs­ to strengthen the state he followed the policies of Richelieu
He appointed Intendants­ which are royal officials who collected taxes , recruited soldiers and carried out his politics in the provinces­ these and often other jobs went to wealthy middle class men

Louis XIV


imposed mercantilist policies to bolster the economy­ he had new lands cleared for farming encouraged mining and other basic industries and built up luxury trades such as lace making, he also fostered overseas colonies such as New France in North America and several colonies in India and regulated trade with the colonies to enrich the royal treasury­ his policies helped making Grant the wealthiest state in Europe

Jean-Baptiste Colbert


turned a royal hunting lodge into the immense palace of Versailles (ver SY). ruled France for 72 years far longer than any other monarch at the end of Louis’s reign France was the strongest state in Europe. poured vast resources into wars meant to expand French Borders

Louis XIV


the goals was to maintain a distribution of military and economic power among European nations to prevent any one country from dominating the region

Balance of Power