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Flashcards in Final 9 Deck (477):
1

A group of men sworn to speak the truth

Jury

2

In 1215 a bunch of rebellious barons cornered Johan and forced him to sign the what (Great Charter)

The Magna Carta

3

Was a provision of the Magna Carta "by legal judgement of his peers or by the law of the land" and is linked the concept of Habeas corpus

Due Process of Law

4

Means that no person can be held in prison without first being charged with a specific crime

Habeas Corpus

5

Emerged from the Great Council which English rulers called upon for advice with matters dealing with the Magna Carta

Parliament

6

Gregory VII ended this. Under this practice the emperor or another layperson (a person not a clergy member) "invested" or presented bishops with the ring and staff that symbolized their office. Only the pope could have the right to appoint bishops in office

Lay Investiture

7

"Red Beard" wanted to build and empire from the Batlic to the Adriatic Sea. He tried to defeat wealth cities of northern Italy they retaliated by joining forces with the one in the Lombard a League and finally managed to defeat Barbarossa's armies

Frederick Barbarossa

8

Decisions of the Royal courts became the foundation of English Legal System based on custom and court ruling

Common Law

9

What Is Jerusalem and other places in Palestine where Christians believe Jesus lives and preached

Holy Land

10

What Is the christian campaign to drive Muslims from Spain

Reconquista

11

A church court set up to try people accused of heresy

Inquisitions

12

Using reason to support Christian beliefs

Scholasticism

13

Everyday languages of ordinary people (French, German, Italian)

Vernacular

14

Is an Italian poet who wrote the divine comedy in the 1300s, his poem takes the reader through an imaginary journey into hell and purgatory

Dante Alighieri

15

Wrote the Cantebury Tales

Geoffrey Chaucer

16

Describe a band of pilgrims traveling into Saint Thomas Becket's tomb

Canterbury Tales

17

Architecture had flying buttresses or stone supports that stood outside the church- constructing higher thinner walls and left space for stained glass windows allowing for more light to travel through, which was opposite to Romanesque style which was shorter with small windows not allowing a lot of light through making the church gloomy and dark

Gothic Style

18

Rising of prices broke out as the cost of labor soared

Inflation

19

Fought for a France as a 17 year old in 1429-she said that God had sent her to save a France-Charles VII was desperate so he authorized her to lead an army against the English-Inspired a battered and despairing French Troops to several victories and planted the seed for future triumphs

Joan of Arc

20

What is Humanists that studied the classical culture of Greece and Rome

Humanism

21

Subjects such as grammar, rhetoric, poetry and history

Humanities

22

Changed during the Renaissance and allowed artists to create realistic Art

Perspective

23

Who Wrote the Prince which looked at real rulers in age of ruthless poet politics, he stressed that the end justifies the means-urging rulers to use whatever methods were necessary to achieve their goals

Niccolo Machiavelli

24

Printed the first complete edition of the bible using a printing press with movable type

Johann Gutenberg

25

Is an everyday language of ordinary people

Vernacular

26

Is now used to describe any ideal society often with the implication that a such a society is ultimately impractical

Utopian

27

Was an English poet and playwright (1590-1613) he wrote 37 plays that are still being performed till today (Hamlet, Macbeth, Othello, Romeo and Juliet)

William Shakespeare

28

Is a lessening of time a should would have to spend in purgatory, a place where souls to impure to enter heaven atoned for sins committed during their lifetimes

Indulgence

29

A german monk and professor of theology-he drew up 95 Theses (arguments) against indulgences and other things-stating that Christians could only be saved by faith

Martin Luther

30

Summoned Luther to the Diet (assembly of german princes, a day of meeting) at the city of worms ordered Luther to give him the 95 theses, Luther refused and Charles declared him an outlaw

Charles V

31

Was another reformed who profoundly affected the directions of the reformation-In 1536 he published a widely-read book that set forth his religious beliefs and explained how to organize and run a Protestant church he preached

John Calvin

32

A government run by church leaders

Theocracy

33

Are religious groups that had broken away from an established church

Sects

34

At first he was a strong "Defender of Faith", but later became at odds with the church went he wanted to divorce his wife because she wasn't giving him a son (even though it is now know that depends on the father not the mother) the pope refused to annul his marriage and passed a series of laws that took the English church from the pope's control and placed it under Henry's rule

Henry VIII

35

Henry VIII appointed him as archbishop of the new church; with his new marriage Henry had another daughter Elizabeth

Thomas Cranmer

36

An acceptable middle ground

Compromise

37

1545-lead by an Italian Cardinal Carlo Borromeo-met off and on for almost 20 years-the council reaffirmed the traditional catholic views that Protestants and challenged

Council of Trent

38

Jews were restricted to live in separated quarters of the city called. I'm these places many Jewish people died from starvation, disease, overwork and harsh elements

Ghetto

39

A polish school he published On the Revolution of the Heavenly Spheres in it he promised a Heliocentric

Nicolas Copernicus

40

Sun-centered model of the universe

Heliocentric

41

Assembled an astronomical telescope- he observed the four moons of Jupiter moved slowly around the planet

Galileo

42

Both devoted themselves to the understanding how truth is determined-they rejected Aristotle's scientific assumptions-also the challenged the scholarly traditions of the medieval universities that south to make the physical world fit in with the teachings of the church

Francis Bacon and Rene Descartes

43

This requires scientist to collect and accurately measure data-to explain the data scientists used reasoning to proposed logical hypotheses (a possible explanation)

Scientific Method

44

He formed a brilliant theory to explain why the planets move as they did-using mathematics he showed that a single force keeps the planets in their orbits around the sun Gravity

Isaac Newton

45

A branch of mathematics partially developed by Newton and used to explain his laws is still applied today

Calculus

46

Led the way in sponsoring exploration for Portugal, a small nation next to Spain

Prince Henry

47

Are mapmakers

Cartographers

48

Wanted to reach the East Indies-(a group of islands in Southeast Asia, today part of Indonesia)- by sailing west across the Atlantic

Christopher Columbus

49

Dividing the non-European world into two zones Spain/Portugal

Line of Demarcation

50

Was signed between the two countries in 1492 (agreeing to the line of demarcation)

Treaty of a Tordesillas

51

Set out from Spain with five ships to find a way to reach the pacific- he reached the coast of South America- finally ended up finding a way to the pacific now as a Strait of Magellan

Ferdinand Magellan

52

Means to sail around the world

Circumnavigate

53

Are large estates run by an owner or an owner's as the overseer(s)

Plantation

54

Were religious people who hoped to convert Africans to Christianity

Missionaries

55

Is the exclusive control of a business or industry

Monopoly

56

Are distant areas that are under control of a ruling nation, country, or government. During this time the Portuguese and built a trading empire with the military and merchant outpost that were under their control in the rimming southern seas (the area around the southern seas)

Outposts

57

Was formed by a wealthy Dutch merchants, unlike Portuguese and Spanish trades, it had full sovereign power

Dutch East India Company

58

Possessing supreme or ultimate power (during this time the Dutch east India company could build armies, wage war, negotiate peace treaties, and govern overseas territory) because of this power it came to dominate the region (India) own power to do what it wants

Sovereign

59

A spanish explorer who claimed lands in the Americas for Spain in the 1500s and 1600s

Conquistador

60

Resistance to disease

Immunity

61

Formal agreement between two or more nations or powers to cooperate and come to another's defense

Alliance

62

A war fought between groups of people in the same nation

Civil war

63

A preventative of the long who ruled in his name

Viceroy

64

The right given to American colonists by the spanish government to demand labor or tribute from native Americans

Encomienda

65

Member of the highest class in Spain's colonies in the Americas

Peninsular

66

An American-born descendant of spanish settlers in Spain's colonies in the Americas

Creole

67

A person of Native American and European descent in Spain's colonies in the Americas

Mestizo

68

A pirate who operated with the approval of European governments

Privateer

69

French possession in present-day Canada from the 1500s to 1763

New France

70

Income

Revenue

71

English Protestants who rejected the Church of England

Pilgrims

72

An agreement among people

Compact

73

The agreement that officially needed the French and Indian war as well as other fighting between France and England, and ensured british dominance in North America

Treaty of Paris

74

Colonial trade routes among europe and its colonies, the West Indies, and africa in which goods were exchanged for slaves

Triangular Trade

75

The second leg of triangular trade in which slaves were transported to the Americas

Middle passage

76

A revolt aboard a ship

Mutiny

77

A rise in prices that is linked to a sharp increase in the amount of money available

Inflation

78

The period in European history during the 1500s when inflation rose rapidly

Price revolution

79

An economic system in which most businesses are owned privately

Capitalism

80

A person who takes on financial risks to make profits

Entrepreneurs

81

An economic policy in which it was believed that a nation must export more goods than it imports to build its supply of gold and silver

Mercantilism

82

A tax on an imported good

Tariff

83

Ferdinand and Isabella's grandson. Became kind of Spain and thereby ruler of the spanish colonies in the Americas. When his grandfather died he became heir to the sprawling Hapsburg empire, which included Holy Roman Empire and the Netherlands. Changed his named to Charles v

Charles I

84

Charles V was overwhelmed by ruling over _________ empire and abdicated his rule and entered a monastery in 1556

Hapsburg

85

Charles V gave Spain, the Netherlands, and some southern italian states and Spain overseas empire to his 29 year old son

Philip (who became Philip II)

86

Is a ruler with complete authority over the government and the lives of the people.

Divine Right

87

Which is that he believed that his authority to rule came directly from God

Divine Right

88

Sailed with more than 130 ships, 20,000 men, and 2,400 pieces of artillery-they were confident with victory-this did not pass the English Channel, lumbering spanish ships were outmaneuvered by the lighter faster english ships, the armada scattered and limped home in defeat

Spanish Armada

89

Was born a peasant as birth-wrote more than 1,500 plays including witty comedies and action-packed romances

Lope de Vega

90

Was the most important writer of Spain's golden age-wrote don Quixote

Miguel de Cervantes

91

Pokes fun at medieval tales of chivalry and is considered to be europes first modern novel

Don Quxiote

92

Religious Strife- 1560-1590 religious wars between the catholic majority and the French Protestants, called ________ tore france apart

Huguenots

93

The worst of these incidents began on what day (a catholic holiday). August 24, 1572 while huguenots and catholic nobles gathered for a royal wedding. A plot by catholic royals lead to the massacre of 3,000 huguenots, in the next few days thousands more were slaughtered and this was called

St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre

94

In 1598 Henry issues this to protect Protestants and granted Huguenots religious toleration and other freedoms

Edict of Nantes

95

When Henry IV was killed by an assassin in 1610 his Niger year song Louis XIII inherited the throne-(for a time nobles asserted their power)-than in 1624 Louis him as chief minister. For the next 18 years he devoted to strengthening the central government

Cardinal Richelieu

96

Spend many hours each day attending the government affairs- to strengthen the state he followed the polices of Richelieu. He appointed intendants- and often other jobs went to wealthy middle class men

Louis XIV

97

Which are royal officials who collected taxes, recruited soldiers and carried out his politics in the provinces

Intendants

98

Turned a real hunting lodge into the immense palace of Versailles-he spared no expense to make it the most magnificent building in Europe. It's halls and salons displayed the finest paintings and statues, and they glittered with chandeliers and mirrors-the Royal gardens had millions of flowers, trees and fountains were set out in precise geometric patterns

Louis XIV

99

Goal was to maintain a distribution of military and economic power among European nations to prevent any one country from dominating the region

Balance of power

100

Or rules discoverable by reason governed scientific forces such as gravity and magnetism using the new science reformers thus set out to study human behavior and solve problems of society

Natural Law

101

Scientific revolution led to another revolution in thinking known as ______

Enlightenment

102

A german philosopher best known for this work the critique of pure reason- was one of the first to describe this era with word "enlightenment"

Immanuel Kant

103

Were two 17th century english thinkers set forth ideas that were to become key to the enlightenment they both lived through the upheavals of the english civil war, but they both came to different conclusions

Thomas Hobbes and John Locke

104

Outlined his ideas in his work titled Leviathan-argued that people were naturally cruel, greedy and selfish and if not strictly controlled they would fight, rob, and oppress another "life of nature"-without laws or other control-would be "solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short" to escape this "brutish" life he said that people entered into a social contract. Believed that a powerful government could ensure an orderly society

Hobbes

105

An agreement by which they gave up their freedom for an organized society

Social Contract

106

Had more of an optimistic view of human nature. He thought people were basically reasonable and moral. He state used further that they had natural rights

Locke

107

Or rights that belong to all humans from birth

Natural Rights

108

Thinkers were called _________. Which means philosophers-their ideas soon spread beyond France and even beyond europe

Philosophes

109

Was an early influential thinker-he stupid the governments of Europe from Italy to England- he read about ancient and medieval Europe, learned about chinese and Native American cultures-his sharp criticism of absolute monarch would open doors for later debate. His great work was the spirit of the laws, in which he discussed governments throughout history-he believed that the best way to protect liberty was to divide the various functions and poses of government among three branches (legislative, executive, and judicial)

Montesquieu

110

He used this wit as a weapon to expose abuses of his day-he targeted corrupt officials and idle aristocrats-with his pen he battled inequality, injustice, and superstition- he detested the slave trade and deplored religious prejudice

Voltaire

111

His work was to do meow than just compile articles- he wanted to "change the general way of thinking" by explaining ideas on topics such as government, philosophy, a religion his work include articles by leading thinkers of the day including Montesquieu and Voltaire

Encyclopedia

112

Believed that people in their natural states were basically good- that natural innocence he felt was corrupted by evils of society, especially the unequal distribution of property. Many reformers and revolutionaries later adopted this view (Thomas Paine and Marquis de Lafayette-leading figures of the American and French Revolution)

Jean-Jacques Rousseau

113

Greatly admired the physiocrat- in his influential work The Wealth of Nations- he argued that the free market should be allowed to regulate business activity

Adam Smith

114

Restricting access to ideas and information-they banned and burned books and imprisoned writers

Censorship

115

Informal social gatherings art which writers, artists, philsophes and others exchanged ideas

Salons

116

In this style painted were huge, colorful and full of excitement-they gloried historic battles of the lives of saints

Baroque

117

Moved away from religious and was lighter, elegant, and charming (compared to the heavy splendor of the baroque style)

Rococo

118

Absolute rulers- who used their power to bring about political and social change

Enlightened Despots

119

Continued reform- in Austria, Hapsburg empress Maria ruled as an absolute monarch- although she did not push for reforms, she is considered to be an enlightened despot by some historians because she worked to peasants' way of life

Joseph II

120

King George III and his advisors thought that the colonists should help help pay for these wars to increase taxes paid by colonist, Parliament passed this Act in 1764 which imposed import taxes

Sugar Act

121

Which imposed taxes on items such as newspapers and pamphlets "no taxation without representation" the colonist protests-they believed that sin they did not have a representative in parliament they should not be taxed

Stamp Act

122

Of Virginia was the principal author of the declaration of independence

Thomas Jefferson

123

Is a document that reflects John Locke's ideas of the government's obligation to protect the people's natural rights to "life, liberty, and property". Included another of Locke's ideas that people had the right to "lather or abolish" unjust governments- a right to revolt

Declaration of Independence

124

Which states that all government power comes from the people, is alps an important point in the declaration

Popular sovereignty

125

America, British and a French diplomats signed this. Ended the revolutionary or American Revolution

Treaty of Paris

126

The articles of confederation was the United States first constitution- it proved to be too weak to rile to address this problem the nation's leaders gathered once more in Philadelphia- among them were

George Washington, James Madison and Benjamin Franklin

127

With its powers divided between the federal/national government and the states. Another feature was that the constitution separated the powers of the federal government into the legislative, executive, and the judicial branches

Federal Republic

128

Everyone in France was divided into social classes or

Estates

129

_____ estate- made of clergy. Provided some social services- nun, monks, and priests ran schools, hospitals and orphanages. But during the enlightenment, philosophes targeted the church fo reform- they criticized the idleness of some clergy, the church's interference in politics, and it's intolerance of dissent

1

130

_____ estate- made of nobility. Was titled nobility of French society- in the Middle Ages noble Knights had defended the land-in the 1600s Richelieu and Louis XIV had crushed the nobles military power. Though they owned land, they received little financial income

2

131

_____ estate- made of the rest of the population. Was the most diverse social class- they consists of prosperous bankers, merchant and manufacturers, as well as lawyers, doctors, journalists, and professors, among the poorest members were urban workers

3

132

Or old order

Ancien Regime

133

Middle class

Bourgeoisie

134

This occurs when government spend more money than it takes in

Deficit spending

135

Was a well-meaning but weak and indecisive-he did however choose wisely and picked Jacques Necker

Louis XVI

136

A financial expert as an advisor- urged the king to reduce extravagant court spending, reform government and abolish burdensome tariffs open internal trade

Jacque Necker

137

Or notebooks, listing their grievance- many called for reform such as fairer taxes, freedom of the press, or regular meetings of the estates-general

Cahiers

138

They swore "never to separate and to meet wherever the circumstances might require until we have established a sound and just constitution

Tennis Court Oath

139

A grim medieval fortress used as a prison for political and other prisoners

Bastille

140

1789-1791. Which turned france into a constitutional monarchy

Moderate Phase of the National Assembly

141

1792-1794. Led to the end of the monarchy and a reign of terror

Radical Phase of Escalating Violence

142

1795-1799. Against extremisms

Directory Phase of Reaction

143

1799-1815. Consolidated many revolutionary changes

Phase of Napoleon Phase

144

The aristocratic "hero of two worlds"- He was the head of the national guard, a largely middle-class militia organized in responses to the arrival of royal troops in Paris. He was known as the Hero of Two Worlds because he also fought alongside George Washington in the American Revolution

Marquis de Lafayette

145

The document was modeled in part on the American Declaration of Independence, written 13 years earlier and stared: all men are "born and remain free and equal in rights" and had natural rights to "liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression"

Declaration of the rights of man and the citizen

146

A journalist demanded equal rights for women in the declaration of the right of women and the female citizen

Olympe de Gouges

147

What happened on Oct 5, 1791 when six thousand women marched 13 miles in the pouring rain from paris to versailles shouting "bread" demanding to see the king. much of the crowd's anger was to Marie Antoinette

Women March on Versailles

148

daughter of Maria Theresa and sister of Joseph II- she lived a life of a great pleasure and extravagance, which led to further public unrest

Maria Antoinette

149

nobles, clergy, and other who had fled france and it revolutionary forces

Emigres

150

pushed the revolution into more radical action-they were called this, which means: without breeches because they wore long trousers (pants) instead of fancy knee breeches that upper-class men wore

Sans-Culottes

151

or government ruled by elected representatives instead of a monarch

republic

152

the right to vote was to be extended to all male citizens, not just to property owners

Suffrage

153

was a shrewd lawyer and political quickly rose to the leadership of the committee of public safety-among Jacobins, his selfless dedication to the revolution earned him the nickname "the incorruptible" had embraced Rousseau's idea of the general will as the source of al legitimate law

Maximilien Robespierre

154

Robespierre was one of the chief architects, lasted from september 1793 to July 1794

Reign of Terror

155

its a fast falling blade extinguished life instantly- a member of the legislature Dr. Joseph Guillotin, had introduced it as a more humane method of beheading than the uncertain ax

Guillotine

156

started to emerge as chaos threatened France, politicians turned to him because he was a popular military hero who had won a series of brilliant victories against the Austrians in Italy

Napoleon Bonaparte

157

a strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one's country spread throughout France

nationalism

158

a popular vote

plebiscite

159

which closed european ports to britsh goods

Continental System

160

a hit-and-run raids against the french. means little war. Spanish resistance encouraged Austria to resume hostilities against France

Guerrilla War

161

left the french hungry and cold as winte came

Scorched Earth Policy

162

they faced the monumental task of restoring stability and order in Europe after years of war

Congress of Vienna

163

which powers met periodically to discuss any problems affecting the peace of europe

Concert of Europe

164

the process of taking over and consolidating land formerly shared by peasant farmers

Enclosure

165

looked at Newcomen's invention in 1764 and set out to make improvements on the engine in order to make it efficient. his new engine would become a key source of the industrial revolution

James Watt

166

separate iron from its ore

smelt iron

167

money used to invest in enterprises

capital

168

is a business organization in an area such as shipping, mining, railroads, or factories

enterprise

169

were those who managed and assumed the financial risk of starting new businesses

entrepreneurs

170

also known as cottage industry, in which raw cotton was distributed to peasant families who spun it into thread then wove the thread into cloth in their own homes

putting-out system

171

created the cotton gin

Eli Whitney

172

which could deseed cotton

cotton gin

173

where private roads built by entrepreneurs who would charge travelers a toll, or fee

turnpikes

174

or multistory building divided into apartments. had no running water, only community pumps

tenements

175

or workers organizations, were illegal at this time, secret unions did not exists among frustrated British worker

labor unions

176

saw the effects of the population explosion: crowded slums, hungry families, unemployment and widespread misery

Thomas Malthus

177

a 1800 british philosopher and economist that was advocating utilitarianism

Jeremy Bentham

178

which was the idea that the goal of society should be "the greatest happiness for the greatest number" of its citizens

Utilitarianism

179

Is the people as a whole rather than private individuals would own and operate the means of production-such as farms, factories, railways, and other large businesses that produced and distributed goods

Socialism

180

Early socialist that tried to create societies based on this idea

Utopians

181

Set up a model community in new Lanark, Scotland, to put his ideas into practice

Robert Owen

182

A german philosopher condemned the ideas of Utopians as unrealistic idealism. Formed the theory "scientific socialism"-which he claimed was a scientific study of history. He teamed up with another german socialist, Friedrich Engel and together they wrote the pamphlet The Communist Manifesto

Karl Max

183

A political ideology in which is there a gradual transition from capitalism to socialism instead of a sudden violent overthrow of the system

Social Democracy

184

During the age of the industrial revolution many great ________ emerged

New technologies

185

Independently developed a new process for making steel from iron

Henry Bessemer

186

It removed carbon from smell making it lighter, harder, and more durable than iron, it could also be produced cheaply

Bessemer Process

187

Invented dynamite-which was a much safer explosive to use compared to others at the time

Alfred Nobel

188

Developed the first battery around 1800

Alessandro Volta

189

Created the first simple electric motor and the first Dynamo

Michael Faraday

190

Which is a machine that generates electricity

Dynamo

191

Made the first electric light bulb in the 1870s

Thomas Edison

192

Which are identical components that could be used on place of another. This simplified the assembly and repair products

Interchangeable parts

193

Parts were added to a product as it moved down a belt from one workstation to the next

Assembly Line

194

Invented a gasoline-powered internal combustion engine

Nicolas Otto

195

Started making models that reached the breathtaking speed of 25 miles per hour and also utilized the assembly line to mass-produce cars making the U.S. The leader in the automobile industry

Henry Ford

196

Designed and flew an airplane at kitty hawk (NC)

Orville and Wilbur Wright

197

Samuel F. B. Morse invented this. It could send coded messages over wires by means of electricity

Telegraph

198

By the 1860s an undersea cable was relaying messages between Europe and North America

Transatlantic Code

199

Scottish born American inventor. Patented the telephone

Alexander Graham Bell

200

Experimented with the"wireless" transmissions

Nikola Tesla

201

Invented the radio

Guglielmo Marconi

202

Which are shared in their companies to people called investors

Stock

203

Which are businesses that are owned by many investors who buy shares of stock

Corporations

204

Showed the relationship between microbes and disease

Louis Pasteur

205

Disease-carrying microbes in milk

Pasteurization

206

Which measures the quality and availability of necessities of and comfort in society improved

Standard living

207

Included very rich business families. Wealthy entrepreneurs married into aristocratic families gaining the state of noble titles

Upper Class

208

Was a campaign to limit or ban the use of alcoholic beverage. Women groups supported this

Temperance Movement

209

Some scientists speculated that certain microbes might cause specific infectious diseases,

Germ theory

210

A crucial breakthrough in chemistry came in the early 1800s when the english Quaker schoolteacher ________ developed the atomic theory

John Dalton

211

A Russian chemists drew a table that grouped elements according to their atomic weights

Dmitri Mendeleyev

212

Students would learn about "classical languages" latin and Greek, history, and math but in general only middle-class families could afford to have their sons attend these schools because they trained students for more serious study or for government jobs

Secondary Schools

213

Published his work called On the Origin of Species

Charles Darwin

214

They applied the idea of survival of the fittest ot war and economic competition and this theory came to be known as

Social Darwinism

215

One religious movement during 1859. Many Protestant choice has back to this- urged Christians to social service

Social Gospel

216

Vividly portrayed the lives of slim dwellers and factory workers, including children

Charles Dickens

217

Tells the story of a nine year old orphan raised in a grim poor house. Written by Charles Dickens

Oliver Twist

218

A french novelist that moved from romantic to realistic novel. Reveal how hunger drove a good man to crime and how the law hound him after his work "les Miserables"

Victor Hugo

219

Took root in Paris during the 1870s. Had artists liked Claude Monet and Edgar Degas

Impressionism

220

What two people Brushed stroked of color side by side without any blending

Claude Monet and Edgar Degas

221

Who Arranged small dots of color to define the shapes of objects

Georges Seurat

222

Who Experimented with sharp burch lines and bright colors

Vincent Van Gogh

223

Who Succeeded where others had failed. Came from Prussia's junker. King William made him prime minister. His success was due in part to his strong will and he was the master of realpolitik

Otto Van Bismarck

224

Class which was made up of conservative landowning nobles

Junker

225

Or the highest official of a monarch. Used to mean prime minister

Chancellor

226

Means realistic policies based on the needs of the state

realpolitik

227

Or took control of

Annexed

228

_______ Annexed several north german states

Prussia

229

During this same period France's leader Napoleon III was angered by the Prussia's victory over Austria and soon there was a frowning rivalry between the two nations which stated

Franco-Prussian War of 1870

230

Emperor

Kaiser

231

Empire

Reich

232

Which is a "battle for civilization" lasting for 7 years

Kulturkampf

233

People who want to abolish all government turned to sabotage and violence

Anarchist

234

Movement away from their homeland

Emigration

235

Or freeing of the serfs

Emancipation

236

In 1815 Britain was a __________ monarchy with a parliament and two political parties

Constitutional Monarchy

237

Wealthy nobles and squires, or country landowners dominated politics and heavily influence voters. Local landowners called towns this and had them send members to parliament

Rotten Boroughs

238

Which redistributed seats in the House of Commons, giving representation to large towns and cities and eliminating rotten boroughs

The Great Reform Act in 1832

239

Allows people to cast their votes without announcing them publicly

Secret Ballot

240

Britain transformed from a constitutional monarchy to __________ democracy

Parliamentary

241

A form of government in which the executive leaders are chosen by and responsible to the legislature

Parliamentary Democracy

242

Parliamentary Democracy= _______ and ______ branches of government

Executive and Legislative

243

Meaning the campaign against slavery and the spare trade, slowly took off

Abolition Movement

244

Owned large estates but did not live on them

Absentee Landlords

245

Local self government

Home Rule

246

Nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte rose to power and set up the second empire

Napoleon III

247

In Egypt it was a link between the Mediterranean, the Red Sea, Dan the Indian Ocean

Suez Canal

248

Temporary government

Provisional

249

France set up a provision that shortly evolved france into

Third Republic Government Structure

250

Prime minister

Premier

251

Or alliances of various parties

Coalitions

252

Was accused of spying for Germany. His cased reflected the rise of antisemitism in Europe

Alfred Dreyfus

253

Publication of false and damaging statements

Libel

254

Extending the nation boundaries

Expansionism

255

What was it known as when President Thomas Jefferson bought the Louisiana territory from France, this almost double the size of the American territory

Louisiana Purchase

256

Americans claimed that there nation was destined to spread across the entire continent, from sea to sea

Manifest Destiny

257

This war Lasted from 1861-1865

Civil War

258

Withdrew from the union and formed the confederate states of America

Seceded

259

Or legal separation of races, in hospitals, schools, and other places

Segregation

260

Built the nation's largest steel company

Andrew Carnegie

261

His standard oil company dominated the world's petroleum industry

John D. Rockefeller

262

They used their political power to create eight-hour work days (even though they never became a majority party in government)

Populist party

263

Is the domination by one country of the political, economic, or cultural life of another country or region

Imperialism

264

The leading imperial powers developed several kinds of

Colonial Rule

265

The French practiced ______, sending officials and soldiers from France to administer their colonies

Direct Rule

266

The britsh, by contrast often used a system of

Indirect rule

267

Local rulers were left in a place but were expected to follow the advice of European advisors on issues such as trade or missionary activity

Protectorate

268

An area in which an outside power claimed exclusive investment or trading privileges

Sphere of influence

269

Denounced the corruption of the local Hausa ruse

Usan Dan Fodio

270

View of Africans- meaning they saw them as children who need guidances

Paternalistic

271

Best known explorer and missionary- For 30 years he crisscross Africa

Dr. David Livingstone

272

King of Belgium that hired stanely to explore the Congo River basin and arrange trade treaties with African leaders

King Leopold II

273

Were repressive rulers of the Ottoman Turkish empire, rejected reform and tired to rebuild the autocratic power enjoyed by earlier ruler

Sultans

274

In the ______ the east India company made several unpopular moves

1850s

275

Indian soldiers in its service (not only in India but everywhere else england wanted them to serve)

Sepoys

276

Were british who governed in India in the name of the Queen

Viceroys

277

Combined two views of westernization while keeping its traditional Hindu and Muslim cultures

Ram Mohun Roy

278

The isolation of women in separate quarters while helping set yo educational societies that helped revive pride in Indian culture

Purdah

279

The right to live under their laws and be tried in their courts

Extraterritoriality

280

lasted from 1850-1864 and was the most devastating revolt in peasant history

taiping rebellion

281

called for keeping chinese trade open to everyone on equal basis

open door policy

282

when a group of chinese had formed a secret society the righteous harmonious fists

boxer uprising in 1899

283

which was a liberal young women-the first _______ were american but soon europeans adopted the style

flapper

284

Women finally gained enough support to get the ________ amendment ratified in 1919 "the prohibition amendment"

eighteenth

285

illegal bars (called tis because when speaking about them you spoke quietly and easily)

speakeasies

286

was a christian ________________ swept across rural areas of the united states

fundamentalist movement

287

was tired for teaching evolution to his classroom. was found guilty in the famous "Scopes Trial"

John T. Scopes

288

a book which exposes the grim horrors of modern warfare

"All Quiet on the Western Front"

289

in the early 1900s polish-born french scientist _______ and others found that the atoms of certain elements (radium and uranium) spontaneously released charged particles this finding implied that atoms are not solid but are indivisible

Marie Curie

290

in 1905 and 1916 the german-born physicist __________ introduced theories of relativity

Albert Einstein

291

italian physicist ________ and other discovered atomic fission

Enrico Fermi

292

which is splitting of nuclei of atoms

atomic fission

293

accidentally discovered a type of non toxic model that kills bacteria "penicillin"

Alexander Fleming

294

challenged faith in reason. he pioneered psychoanalysis. his most famous work is labeled psychoanalytic personality theory

Sigmund Freud

295

is a method of studying how the mind works and treats mental disorders

psychoanalysis

296

is the set of uncoordinated instinctual trends

Id

297

plays the critical and moralizing role

Superego

298

is a realistic part that mediates between the desires of the id and the superego

ego

299

Name the three psychoanalytic personality theory

Id, Superego, and Ego

300

Use bold, wild strokes of color and odd distortions to produce works of strong emotion

Henri Matisse

301

Was a spanish artist created a revolutionary new style called cubism

Pablo Picasso

302

Which was composed of only lines, colors, and shapes

Abstract

303

Which rejected all traditional conventions and believed that there was no sense or truth in the world

Dada

304

Was inspired from cubism and dada attempted to portray the working of the unconscious mind

Surrealism

305

Which consisted of upper class, professionals, and farmers

Conservative Party

306

France's chief concern after the war was securing its borders against Germany. To prevent this the french built massive fortifications along its border with Germany

Maginot

307

Was sponsored by the U.S. in 1928 echoed the hopeful spirit of the time. The pact include almost every independent nation to sign an agreement to renounce war as an instrument of national policy

Kellogg-Briand Pact

308

Which is the reduction of armed forces and weapons

Disarmament

309

Finance is the management of money matters, including the circulation of money, loans, and investments, and baking

Financial crisis

310

Is a condition in which the production of goods exceeds the demand for them

Overproduction

311

Is a painful time of global economic collapse had begun in the summer of 1929

Great Depression

312

Argued that the government had to take an active role in combating the Great Depression. He introduced the new deal

Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDR)

313

Was a massive package of economic and social programs

New deal

314

FDR organized veterans and other discontented Italians into this party

Fascist Party

315

To describe any centralized, authoritarian government that is not communist whose policies glorify

Fascism

316

In which government officials made all basic economic decisions

Command economy

317

Which are large farms owned and operated by peasants as a group

Collectives

318

Stalin required artists and writers to create their work in a style called _________. It's goal is to show soviet life in a positive light and promote hope in the communist future

Socialist realism

319

Making nationality culture more russian

Russification

320

Or the belief that there is no god, became an official state policy

Atheism

321

In 1919 german leaders drafted a constitution in the city of Weimar. It created a democratic government known as

Weimar Republic

322

Or prime minister

Chancellor

323

German workers of the Ruhr Valley protest using passive resistant and refused to work. He failed to seize power and was arrested in 1923 and is where he wrote his manifesto. Under his new third reach, he boast that the german master race would dominate europe for a thousand years. Had a secret poltic the Gestapo

Ruhr Valley

324

Is title Mein Kampf (my struggle)

Manifesto

325

Root out any opposition

Gestapo

326

Ruhr Valley under his new _______, he boasts that the German master race would dominate Europe for a thousands years

Third Reich

327

Deprived Jews of germn citizenship and places severe restrictions on them

Nuremberg Laws

328

Is the giving in to the demands of an aggressor in order to keep the peace

Appeasement

329

Opposition to all war, due to the disgust with the destruction from the previous war spread throughout the world

Pacifism

330

Which are laws that forbade the sale of arms to any nation at war and outlawed loans to warring nations and prohibited Americans from traveling on ships of warring powers

Neutrality Acts

331

Germany, Italy, and Japan formed this axis. These three powers agreed to fight soviet communism, they also not to interfere with each other's plans for territorial expansion

Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis

332

Union of Austria and Germany

Anschluss

333

Hitler sent in the Germany army to "preserver order"

Czechoslovakia

334

Region of western Czechoslovakia

Sudetenland

335

Bound hitler and Stalin to peaceful relationships. Secretly the two agreed not to fight if the other sent to war and divide up land of Eastern Europe

Nazi-Soviet Pact

336

Lighting war. Used improved tanks and air power technology to strike a devasting blow against the enemy

Blitzkrieg

337

German Air Force would bomb airfields, factories, towns, and cities

Luftwaffe

338

Winston Churchill who was prime minister at the time faced hitler in defiance. Hitler wanted to plan for an invasion of Britain

Sea Lion

339

He was known as the "desert fox" and had hit major success in Africa from 1941-1942. He pushed the British back to Cairo, Egypt

General Erwin Rommel

340

In June 1941 Hitler nullified the nazi-soviet pact by invading the Soviet Union. A plan which takes its name from a medieval Germanic leader Frederick Barbarossa

Operation Barbarossa

341

Nazi sent thousands of Jewish people here. Are detention centers for civilians who were considered enemies of the state

Concentration camps

342

Going even further the german people in 1941 devised a plan. Which was to kill all Jews

Final Solution of the Jewish Problem

343

By 1945 nazis massacred around six million Jews and the massacre became known as __________. Another six million other people (Slavs, Gypsies, homosexuals, and the disabled) were also killed totaling 12 million people

Holocaust

344

In March 1941 FDR persuaded congress to pass this act

Lend-Lease Act

345

Japanese planes bombed the American fleet at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. Killing 2,400 people and destroying battleships and aircrafts. FDR told the nation that this day was "a date which will live in infamy". He asked congress to declare war on Japan and on dec 11 Italy and Germany declared war on the u.s.

December 7, 1941

346

Women in these industries were symbolized by this character in the U.S. Is someone who puts the bolts in pieces of metal-which is used to construct airplanes, tanks, etc

Rosie the Riveter

347

Between 1942-1943 marked a turning point in WW2. The _______ started to win victories on all front (all areas around the world that were occupied by the axis power)

Allies

348

Are ships that transport aircraft and accommodate the takeoff and landing of airplanes

Aircraft carriers

349

June 1942 which was also fought entirely from air. Americans destroyed four Japanese carriers and more than 250 plane. After this battle the Japanese were unable to launch any more offensive operations

Battle of Midway

350

November of 1942 the allies finally halted the desert fox's advanced.

Battle of El Alamein

351

Took command of a joint british and American force in morocco and Algeria

General Dwight D. Eisenhower

352

Was one of the bloodiest battle of WW2

Battle of Stalingard

353

The most famous soviet sniper in Stalingard with 225 confirmed kills during the battle

Vasily Zaytsev

354

The allies chose this date as D-Day for the invasion of France (Normandy beach a key point in this attack

June 6 1944

355

The three leaders agreed that the Soviet Union would enter the war against Japan within three months of Germany's surrender and in return Churchill and Roosevelt promised Stalin that soviets would take possession of southern Sakhalin Island, the Kuril Islands, and an occupation zone in Korea

Yalta Conference

356

On May 7 German surrender, it was officially

VE Day (Victory in Europe Day)

357

Within the war won in Europe all the allies poured their resources into beating Japan. Were the two bloodiest battles against Japan

Battle of Iwo Jima and the Battle of Okinawa

358

Were Japanese pilots who were selected to do suicide dive bomb missions on enemy ships

Kamikaze

359

This project was named this because the army component the design of the project was designated the Manhattan district and by 1945 the first atomic bomb was tested in New Mexico

Manhattan Project

360

Took office because FDR unexpectedly

Harry Truman

361

On August 6, 1945 an American plane dropped atomic bomb over the city

Hiroshima

362

August 9,1945 the United States dropped a second bomb on __________ more than 40,000 people were killed instantly in this bomb

Nagasaki

363

Where hitler had state mass rallies in the 1930s

Nuremberg

364

Allowed each of its member nations one vote at the general assembly

UN Charter

365

In the UN the five greatest nations with greatest power created this. Consisted of Russia, Britain, France, and China

Security Council

366

Which is the name for the tension between the United States and the Soviet Union

Cold War

367

Was really good in the idea of containment of communism or limiting communism to areas that were under soviet control

Truman Doctrine

368

The untitled states funneled food and economic assistance to Europe to help countries rebuild

Marshall Plan

369

Tensions continued to grow into 1949 and the United States, Canada and the other countries formed a new military alliance. These countries pledged to help one another if anyone of them were attacked

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

370

This included the Soviet Union and seven satellite in Eastern Europe-this pact made sure that all Russians satellite nations stayed aligned with Russia

Warsaw Pact

371

A 1950s writer that seemed to be living the American Dream. She had a loving husband, healthy children and a house in the suburbs. Wrote a book, the feminine Mystique, in which she addressed this "problem that has no name"

Betty Friedan

372

The belief that women should have economic, political, and social quality with men. This belief had gained momentum during the mid-1800s and in the 1920 won women the right to vote

Feminism

373

The women's movement gained strength with the passage of the civil rights act of 1964, which prohibited discrimination based on race, religion, national origin, and gender created this to handle discrimination claims

Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)

374

Betty Friedan create this to purse women's goals.

National Organization for Women (NOW)

375

Which is women's right as individual Americans and as human beings

Equality of Opportunity

376

Has been the focus of conflicts that have a global impact. Commands vast oil resources and key waterways such as the Persian gulf.

Middle East

377

Meanwhile there has been a major disputes between Israelis and Palestinian Arabs in the lands

Local Conflict

378

During the 1960s, america received much of its petroleum form the oil-producing countries of the Middle East. Many of these countries belonged to a cartel. Gradually raised oil prices

OPEC (Organization of petroleum exporting countries)

379

Terrorists attacked the United States. They hijacked four airplanes in mid-flight. The terrorists flew two of the planes into two skyscrapers at the World Trade Center in New York City. The impact caused the buildings to catch fire and collapse. Another plane destroyed part of the pentagon in Arlington, Virginia

September 11,2001 (9/11)

380

After the 9/11 attack bush declared what

War on terrorism

381

(Son of Henry II) was clever, cruel, and untrustworthy ruler

King John

382

Became king of France and was deeply religious man, he persecuted heretics or those who held contrary beliefs towards the church's teachings (he persecuted Jews and led french Knights in two crusades "wars against Muslims"

Louis IX

383

In 1054 he Was crowned king of Germany and later also became holy roman emperor

Henry IV

384

Was pope during this time and their reigns over the land created conflict between monarchs and the church escalated

Gregory VII

385

Took office in 1198 and claimed supremacy over all other rulers. In 1209 he aided Philip II and launched a brutal crusade "holy war" against Albigensians in southern France

Pope Innocent III

386

Was asked by byzantine emperor Alexius for christian Knights to help fight the Muslim Turks. This was not a good idea because only the first crusade came close to victory

Pope Urban II

387

His great work Summa Theologica concluded that faith and reason exist in harmony, because both lead to lead to the same truth (God rules over and orderly universe)

Thomas Aquinas

388

Because of famine, economic decline and the plague a long war broke out between France and England

100 Year War

389

Is a florentine who lived in the 1300s

Petrarch

390

Is a financial supporter of the arts

Patron

391

Was an artist who painted in his ow style- he is known for painting in style that blended christian and classical styles

Raphael

392

Wrote the book of the courtier-which es cried the manners, skills, learning and virtues that a member of the court should have

Baldassare Castiglinoe

393

Printed the first complete edition of the bible using a printing press with movable type

Johan Gutenberg

394

A region that include parts of present-day northern France, Belgium, and the Netherlands (where the northern Renaissance took place)

Flanders

395

Was a german painted who did engravings and paintings portraying religious upheaval

Albrecht Durer

396

Was a humanist who wrote texts on a number of subjects and used this knowledge of classical languages to produce a new greek edition of the bible

Erasmus

397

Was a humanist who pressed for social reform he wrote utopia which described an ideal society in which men and women life in peace and harmony

Thomas More

398

The idea that God had long ago determined who would gain salvation-in his view that world was divided into saints and sinners

Predestination

399

Is a Swiss city-state

Geneva

400

A spanish knight raised in the crusading tradition, he grew up a strict programs for the Jesuits-included a spiritual and moral discipline with rigorous training and absolute obedience

Ignatius of Loyola

401

Symbolized the catholic reformation-born into a wealthy spanish family. She entered a convent in her youth, finding that convent life was not strict enough she established her own order of nuns, living in isolation, eating and sleeping very little and dedicating this,elves to prayer and mediation-the church was inspired by her and asked her to reform spanish convents and monasteries-after she passed she was canonized as a saint

Teresa of Avila

402

A polish school he published on the revolutions of the heavenly spheres in it he proposed a heliocentric

Nicolas Copernicus

403

Provided evidence that supported Copernicus's theory, every night for years he carefully observed the sky, accumulating data about the movement of the heavenly bodies

Tycho Brahe

404

Used a Brahe's data to calculate the orbits of the planets revolving around the sun

Johannes Kepler

405

Refined the alchemists view of chemicals as basic building blocks-that matter was composed of tiny particles that behave in knowable ways

Robert Boyle

406

Followed in dia's footsteps, leading four ships around the cape of good hope

Vasco da Gama

407

Were hubs of international trade

Mombasa and Malinda

408

Ruler of Kongo in west central Africa

Alfonso I

409

Was the commander of the Mughal empire (he controlled over much of India)

Alfonso de Albuquerques

410

Is located in present-day Ghana (Africa)

Asante Kingdom

411

A military leader who won control of the trading city of Kumasi and fainted control of the Asante kingdom. He fought off a neighboring African kingdom by uniting his kingdom firmly

Osei Tutu

412

Arose from successive waves of settlements by the Yoruba people (which is in present-day Nigeria)

Oyo Empire

413

Is off the coast of India, this location made it major military and commercial base of India

Goa

414

The first permanent european settlement to supply ships sailing to or from the East Indies

Cape Town

415

Were Dutch farmers who settle around Cape Town

Boers

416

One of the earliest conquistadors, who landed in Mexico in 1519 and took over the Aztec empire

Hernan Cortes

417

The capital of the Aztec Empire

Tenochtitlan

418

A young Indian women who served as translator and advisor to Cortes

Malinche

419

The Aztec emperor who faced the spanish invasion led by Cortes

Moctezuma

420

Spanish conquistador, who arrived in Peru in 1532, overran the incas, and conquered much of the continent of South America for Spain

Francisco Pizarro

421

A bold spanish priest who spoke out against the evils of the encomienda system and pleaded with the king to end the abuse

Bartolome de las Casas

422

A worker forced to labor for a landlord to pay off a debt

Peon

423

A war between France and England that erupted in 1754 in North America and ended in 1763

French and Indian War

424

African slave in the 1700s who published an autobiography detailing his experiences

Olaudah Equiano

425

A vast global exchange of goods, people, plants and animals that began with columbus and profoundly affected the world

Columbian Exchange

426

Worked for years to produce a 28 volume set of books called the encyclopedia

Denis Diderot

427

A german Lutheran, wrote beautiful religious works for organ and choirs, also wrote sonatas for violin and harpsichord

Johann Sebastian Bach

428

Was on the most important figures in the development of classical music-developed forms for ten string quartet and the symphony-was a closer friend to Mozart

Franz Joseph Haydn

429

Was a child prodigy who gained instant celebrity status as a composer and a performer-his brilliant operas, graceful symphonies and moving religious music helped define the new style of composition even thought he died in poverty at age 35 his musical legacy still thrives today

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

430

Wrote Robinson Crusoe-an exciting tale about a sailor shipwrecked on a tropical island

Daniel Defoe

431

Colonists called the death of five protesters

Boston Massacre

432

In 1773 a handful of colonies hurled a cargo of recently arrived british tea into the harbor to protest a tax on tea- this act became known as

The Boston tea party

433

Consist of representatives from each colony (gathered in Philadelphia) debated on what action they should take. Among them was a radical yet fair mined Massachusetts lawyer John Adams, who had defended the British soldiers involved in the Boston Massacre in their trial

First Continental Congress

434

A Virginia planter, soldier, political and social leader was also present and the first continental congress (first american president)

George Washington

435

On April 1775 the ongoing tension between the colonists and the British exploded into war in Lexington and concord mass

Revolutionary War or American Revolution

436

Some scientists speculate that certain microbes might cause specific infectious diseases, this was called

Germ Theory

437

Identified the bacterium that caused tuberculosis

Robert Koch

438

Stated that "nobody ever helped me into carriage, or over mud puddles , or gives me any best place! And I ain't I a women?"

Sojourner Truth

439

William Wordsworth, William Blake, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Percy Byshee Shelley and other became part of a cultural movement which lasted from 1750-1850

Romanticism

440

Used simple, direct language, intense feelings and a glorification of nature

Romantic writer

441

Was a larger-than-lids figure that was equal to the character he wrote about

Byron

442

Novels and ballads evoked the turbulent history of Scottish clans or medieval knights

Sir Walter Scott's

443

Re-created France's past in novels like the three musketeers and the hunchback of Notre dame

Alexandre Dumas and Victor Hugo

444

In England had improved on earlier technologies to produce successful
Photograph

Louis Daguerre and William Fox Talbot

445

Developed a bold personality style to his paintings, looked flat and resembled "primitive folk art" his type of art evoked intense feeling

Paul Gauguin

446

Came to the throne in 1855 during the Crimean war. His reign represents the pattern of reform and repression used by his farther and grandfather Alexander I and Nicholas I

Alexander II

447

Had broken out after Russia tried to seize ottoman lands along the Danube River

Crimean War

448

Were made responsible for matters such as roads, repair, schools and agriculture

Zemstvos

449

Her reign was the longest in british history, even though she had little real political power, she set the tone for the age

Queen Victoria

450

A Hungarian jewish journalist living in France to call for the Jewish people to form their own separate state where they could have rights that were being otherwise denied to them

Theodor Herzl

451

Trekked into central africa looking for Livingston who hadn't been from for years

Henry Stanely

452

Launched the hundred days of refor. It set out new laws to modernize the civil service eases, streamline government and encourage new industries

Guangxu

453

In 1950 only one out of three women worked for wages. By 1960a that number increased to about 40 percent. Still during this time, certain jobs were considered "men work" and women were shut out. The jobs available to women-mostly clerical work, domestic service, retail sales, social work, teaching, and nursing-paid poorly

Women in the work place

454

In what seemed at first to be another triumph for the women's movement, congress passed this amendment in 1972. The amendment then needed ratification by 38 states to become part of the constitution. First introduced to the contract in 1923, it would guarantee that both men and women would enjoy the same rights and protections under the law

The Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)

455

Led the struggle against Israel. Were headed by yasir Arafat. Called for the destruction of Israelis at home and abroads. Gained national attention when they hijacked Aprils and killsd Israeli athletes at the 1972 Olympic game

Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO)

456

Uprisings against Israel

Intifada

457

Signed the Oslo accords

Yasir Arafat and a Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin

458

Is a radical Islamist group. Rejected israel's right to exist


Hamas

459

Responded by imposing an economic blockaded on Gaza

Israel

460

Responded by using Gaza as a launching ground for racket attacks on Israel

Hamas

461

Were forced off their lands in earlier want the rights to return to their lands

Palestinians

462

Opposed the right because it could overwhelm the Jewish state with large numbers of Palestinians

Israelis

463

Obstacle was the issue of Jewish settlements in the West Bank

Second Issue

464

An area claimed by Palestinians

West Bank

465

A city that is sacred to the Jewish people, Christians and Muslims Israel occur odd Arab east Jerusalem in 1967

Jerusalem

466

Headquarters at the watergate office and apartment complex in Washington, D.C.

Democratic National Committee (DNC)

467

In spring of 1974, president Nixon told a television audience that he was released 1,254 pages of edits transcripts of the White House conversations about

Watergate

468

President Nixon maintained that he had done nothing wrong. At a press conference in November 1973, he proclaimed

He wasn't a crook

469

Energy-saving measures that could do little to combat a sudden new economic crisis

Under Carter

470

Led rebels in overthrowing the shah and establishing a religious stated based on strict obedience to the Qur'an, the sacred book of Islam

Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini

471

Is transmitted through bodily fluids and most of the early victims of the disease were either homosexual men or intravenous drug use who shared needles

Aids

472

Gorbachev advocated a policy which means openness

Glasnost

473

Signed on December 8,1987. Eliminated two classes of weapons systems in Europe and allowed each nation to make on-site inspection of the other's military installation

INF Treaty (Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty)

474

East Germans startled the world by repudiating their communist government

October 1989

475

Iraq leaders Eclipsed U.S. Problems with Iran

Saddam Hussein

476

Hussein had claimed that the oil-rich nation.Was really plant of Iraq

Kuwait

477

Kuwait, would control one-half of the world's known oil resources, which would severely threaten

U.s. Oil Supplies