Chapter 18 Flashcards Preview

World History 9 > Chapter 18 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 18 Deck (41):
0

Or old order

Ancien Regime

1

Everyone in France was divided into social classes or

Estate

2

Made of clergy

First estate

3

Made of notability

Second Estate

4

Made of the rest of population

Third Estate

5

Did provide some social services-Nun, Monks, and Priests ran schools, hospital, and orphanages. But during the Enlightenment philosophes targeted the church for reform-thug criticized the idleness of some clergy, the church's interference in politics and ifs intolerance of dissent

First Estate

6

Was titled nobility of French society-in the Middle Ages noble knights had defended the land, in the 1600s Richelieu and Louis XIV had crushed the nobles military power though they owned land, they received little financial income

Second Estate

7

Was the most diverse social class-at the top they say the Bourgeoisie-or middle class-they consisted of prosperous bankers, merchants, and manufactures, as well as lawyers, doctors, journalists, and professors. Among the poorest members of the Third Estate was urban worker

Third Estate

8

This occurs when the government spends more money than it takes in

Deficit spending

9

Was well-meaning but weak and indecisive-he did however chose wisely and picked Jacques Necker-a financial expert as an advisor-Necker urged the king to reduce extravagant court spending, reform government, and abolish burdensome tariffs on internal trade

Louis XVI

10

The legislative body consisting of representative of the three estates, before making any changes

Estates General

11

Notebooks, listing their grievances. Called for reforms such as fairer taxes, freedom of press, or regular meetings of the Estates-General

Cahiers

12

They swore "never to separate and to meet wherever the circumstances might require until we have established a sound and just constitution"

Tennis Court Oath

13

A grim medieval fortress used as a prison for political and other prisoners

Bastille

14

Turned France into a constitutional monarchy

Moderate Phase of the National Assembly (1789-1791)

15

Led an end of the monarchy and a Reign of Terror

Radical Phase of Escalating Violence (1792-1794)

16

Against extremes

Directory Phase of Reaction (1795-1799)

17

Consolidated many revolution changes

Phase of Napoleon Phase (1799-1815)

18

A journalist demanded equal rights for women in the declaration of the right so women and the female citizen

Olympe de Gouges

19

Nobles, clergy, and others who had fled France and it's revolutionary forces

Émigrés

20

a government ruled by elected representative instead of a monarch

Republic

21

Were mostly middle-class lawyers or intellectual-they used pamphleteers and sympathetic newspaper editors to advance the republican cause

Jacobins

22

The right to vote was to be extended to all male citizens, not just property owners

Suffrage

23

Which lasted from September 1793 to July 1794

Reign of Terror

24

It is a fast falling blade extinguished life instantly- a member of the legislature Dr. Joseph Gullotin, had introduced it as a more humane method of beheading than the uncertain ax

Guillotine

25

Stated to emerge as chaos threatened France, politicians turned to him because he was a popular military hero who had won a series of brilliant victories against the Austrians in Italy

Napoleon Bonaparte

26

A strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one's country spread throughout France

Nationalism

27

A popular vote-(each time the French supported him)

Plebiscite

28

Incorporated into his empire (Netherlands, Belgium, and parts of Italy and Germany

Annexed

29

Closed European ports to British goods-Britian responded with its own blockade of European ports

Continental System

30

A hit-and-run raids against the French (Spanish Guerrilla means "little war" Spanish Resistance encouraged Austria to resume hostilities against France)

Guerrilla War

31

Left the French hungry and cold was winter came

Scorched Earth Policy

32

They faced the monumental task of restoring stability and order in Europe after years of war

Congress of Vienna

33

European powers met periodically to discuss any problems affecting the peace of Europe

Concert of Europe

34

The aristocratic "hero of two worlds"-he was the head of the National Guard, a largely middle-class militia organized in responses to the arrival of royal troops in Paris

Marquis de Lafayette

35

The document modeled in part on the American Declaration of Independence, written 13 years earlier and stated "all men are "born and remain free and equal in rights" and had natural rights to "liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression"

Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen

36

On October 5, 1791 six thousand women marched 13 miles in the poring rain from Paris to Versailles shouting "Bread" demanding to see the king

Women March on Versailles

37

Daughter of Maria Theresa and sister of Joseph II-she lived a life of great pleasure and extravagance, which led to further public unrest

Marie Antoinette

38

Was a shrewd layers and political quickly rose to the leadership of the Committee of Public Safety-among Jacobins, his selfless dedication to the revolution earned him the nickname "the incorruptible"

Maximilien Robespierre

39

It embodied enlightenment principles such as equality of all citizens before the law, religious toleration, and the abolition of feudalism

Napoleonic Code

40

Stepped down from power

Abdicated