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91

PURe As Gold (Ag)

Adenine and Guanine are Purines

92

basic unit of DNA

(structure of DNA)

nucleotide

93

composition of nucleotide

deoxyribose (sugar)

bonded to:

phosphate group

nitrogenous base

94

two types of nitrogen bases

purines

pyrimidines

95

purines in DNA

adenine

guanine

96

pyrimidines in DNA

Cytosine

Thymine

Uracil

97

backbone of nucleotide

phosphate group and sugar (deoxyribose)

98

bases arranged as (on chain)

side groups

99

physicality of DNA

double-stranded helix

100

composition of double-stranded helix

sugar phosphate on outside

base pairs on inside

101

hydrogen bonding in double-stranded helix

base pairs are attracted by hydrogen bonds

2 hydrogen bonds between A = T

3 hydrogen bonds between C = G

 

the more C=G pairs, the tighter the two strands are bound

102

base pairing forms

"rungs" on interior of double helix 

links two polynucleotide chains together

103

Watson-Crick DNA Model

double-standed helix

sugar phosphate backgone

nucleotide base pairs inside

A-T; C-G

base pairs bonded via hydrogen bonding

holds together polynucleotide chains

104

DNA replication

(function of DNA)

double-stranded DNA unwinds

separates into two single strands

each strand template for complementary base-pairing

synthesis of two new daughter helices proceeds

105

each new daughter helix contains

(DNA replication)

strand from parent helix

newly synthesized complementary strand

106

semiconservative

(DNA replication)

in reference to new daughter helices complementary to parent helices

107

daughter helices are identical to

each other

parent helix

108

Language of DNA

Genetic Code

(fxn of DNA)

A,T,C,G

109

language of proteins

genetic code

20 amino acids

110

to form amino acids, DNA translated by

mRNA

111

triplet code

amino acid codons

64 different codons coding 20 amino acids

112

base sequence of mRNA translated to

codons

series of triplets

113

composition of codons

sequence of three consecutive bases

codes for particular amino acids

e.g. GGC - glycine

GUG - valine

114

genetic code is universal!

genetic code is universal!

for all organisms

115

codon possibilities

64 codons based on triplet code

20 amino acids to code for

redundancy

116

redundant codons

64 codons

20 amino acids

codon synonyms

multiple codons code for the same amino acid

each codon codes for only one amino acid

117

degeneracy 

or 

redundancy 

of the genetic code

property of 64 codons coding for 20 amino acids

118

AUG

start codon

Met (Methionine)

119

stop codons

UAA

UGA

120

RNA

(molecular genetics)

ribonucleic acid

polynucleotide structurally similar to DNA