Chapter 40 - Patients with Special Challenges Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 40 - Patients with Special Challenges Deck (31)
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1

acute renal failure (ARF)

a rapid loss of renal function that results in poor urine production, electrolyte disturbance, and fluid balance disturbance.

2

apnea monitor

device that monitors breathing and emits a warning signal if breathing stops.

3

bariatrics

medical management of obese patients.

4

bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP)

a form of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation. The BiPAP device delivers a continuous flow of air under pressure. It differs from the CPAP device in that it provides different pressures: higher during inspiration, lower during expiration. See also continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP).

5

birth defects

a variation from normal structure or function that is present at birth.

6

cataract

clouding of the lens of the eye from pathologic changes within the lens.

7

central intravenous catheter

a catheter that is designed to deliver medication into the central circulation of the body.

8

chronic kidney disease (CKD)

see chronic renal failure. a progressive loss of kidney function over a period of months to years.

9

chronic renal failure (CRF)

a progressive loss of kidney function over a period of months to years.

10

continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)

a form of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation. The CPAP device delivers a continuous flow of air under pressure. See also bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP).

11

diabetic retinopathy

damage to the small blood vessels of the eye from the long term effects of diabetes mellitus.

12

dialysis

an artificial process used to remove water and waste substances from the blood when the kidneys fail to function properly.

13

dialysis shunt

a joining of arterial and venous systems in such a way that the repeated needlesticks required for dialysis cause a minimal amount of damage to the patients body.

14

dysarthria

defective speech caused by impairment of the tongue or other muscles necessary for speech.

15

enteral feeding

provision of nutrition through a tube inserted through the nose, the mouth, or a surgical opening in the abdomen into the gastrointestinal system.

16

glaucoma

an abnormal increase in intraocular pressure that damages the optic nerve, resulting in loss of peripheral vision and eventual blindness.

17

hospice

a philosophy of care that is aimed at providing relief of symptoms for the patients and support for their families during the late stages of a terminal condition.

18

intraventricular shunt

a tube surgically placed in a ventricle of the brain that extends to a blood vessel in the neck, the heart, or the abdomen, or to an external collector to drain excess cerebrospinal fluid from the brain and keep intracranial pressure at an acceptable level.

19

medical oxygen

oxygen administered as a medication or to support or improve a patients oxygenation.

20

ostomy bag

a pouch or bag that is attached outside the body to collect feces that are removed from the body through an opening in the abdominal wall.

21

paraplegic

paralyzed from the waist down.

22

pulse oximeter

electronic device use dot determine the oxygen concentration in arterial blodd.

23

quadriplegic

paralyzed from the neck down.

24

stoma

a permanent surgical opening into the neck and trachea. See also tracheostomy.

25

surgically implanted medication delivery devices

medication administration devices that are surgically placed beneath the skin outside the rib cage. Also called a totally implantable venous access system (TIVAS).

26

terminally ill

the condition of an individual who has a disease process that is realistically expected to result in the death of the patient, despite medical treatment.

27

totally implantable venous access system (TIVAS)

medication administration devices that are surgically placed beneath the skin outside the rib cage.

28

tracheostomy

a surgical opening in the trachea.

29

urinary catheter

a device that is used to divert urine out of the bladder.

30

vascular access device

a medical device that is used when a patent is in need of ongoing intravenous medications.