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Flashcards in Pharmacology Deck (61)
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1

Albuterol - Generic Name

Albuterol

2

Albuterol - Trade Name

Ventolin, Proventil

3

Albuterol - Class

Sympathomimetic, Selective Beta 2 Agonist

4

Albuterol - Actions

Activates the beta 2 adrenergic receptors to relax smooth muscle

Brochodilation, relieves bronchospasms, and reduces airway resistance

5

Albuterol - Onset & Duration

Onset: ~5 minutes

Duration: 3-4 hours

6

Albuterol - Indications

Respiratory distress with bronchospasms

Respiratory origin

Allergic reaction/anaphylaxis

Pneumonia

7

Albuterol - Contraindications

MI - Myocardial Infarction

Cardiac Pulmonary Edema

Cardiac dysrhythmias associated with tachycardia (relative, >120)

8

Albuterol - Side Effects

Restlessness/Anxiety

Vertigo

Tachycardia/Palpations

Dysrhythmias

9

Albuterol - Special Information

Albuterol may precipitate angina pectoris and dysrhythmias.

Check lung sounds, O2 saturation, capnography, respiratory rate before and after administration of Albuterol

10

Albuterol - Dosage & Route

Adults - 2.5mg Albuterol in 3mL of NS via SVN, repeat as needed.

Pediatrics - 2.5mg Albuterol in 6mL of NS via SVN, repeat as needed.

Connect oxygen to SVN at 6-8 lpm.

11

Albuterol - MDI dose

90 mcg

12

Aspirin - Generic Names

ASA, Acetylsalicylic Acid

13

Aspirin - Trade Names

Bayer, St. Josephs, multiple others

14

Aspirin - Class

Antiplatelet

15

Aspirin - Actions

Interrupts Thomboxane A2

Inhibits the normal tendency for platelets to accumulate inside injured or occluded cardiac arteries thereby promoting better blood flow through vessels to better perfuse the heart

16

Aspirin - Onset & Duration

Onset: 15-30 minutes

Duration: 4-6 hours

17

Aspirin - Indications

Chest pain of suspected cardiac origin

18

Aspirin - Contraindications

Unable to swallow

Caution if patient has history of active bleeding ulcer

19

Aspirin - Side Effects

Stomach irritation

Bronchospasms in some patients with asthma

20

Aspirin - Special Information

Pills need to be chewed and swallowed. Small amount of water can be used. 

Aspirin interferes with Thromboxane A2 (TA2) "message" from being sent to other platelets, thus causing the platelets to pass by and not let the clot grow, minimizing the clotting process. ASA has no effect on existing blood clot. It just stops it from getting bigger.

Can be given if patient is on anti-coagulants.

21

Aspirin - Dosage & Route

Oral route (PO)

Dose can range from 162mg to 325mg 2-4 81mg tablets

It is highly suggested that the EMS provider administer a total of 4, 81mg tablets for a total of 324mg.

22

Nitroglycerine - Generic Name

Nitroglycerine, Nitro

23

Nitroglycerine - Trade Name

Nitrostat, Nitro-bid, Nitrolingual

24

Nitroglycerine - Class

Nitrate

25

Nitroglycerine - Actions

  • Relaxes systemic venous and arterial vessels causing vasodilation thereby
    • Decreasing cardiac preload and after load
    • Decreasing myocardial workload
    • Decreasing myocardial O2 comsumption
  • Dilates coronary arteries

26

Nitroglycerine - Onset & Duration

Onset: 2 minutes SL; ~30-60 minutes topical

Duration: ~30-60 minutes SL; ~24 hours topical

27

Nitroglycerine - Indications

Angina or angina-equivalent discomfort

Cardiac pulmonary edema

28

Nitroglycerine - Contraindications

Systolic BP < 100

Suspected right ventricular MI

Phosphodiesterase inhibitor use with last 24 hours - ED medications such as Viagra (sildenafil), Cialis (tadalafil) or Levitra (vardenafil) taken along with Nitro can cause profound hypertension and tachycardia

29

Nitroglycerine - Side Effects

Headache

Hypotension

Increased HR

Vertigo

Nausea

30

Nitroglycerine - Special Information

Nitro has a cumulative effect; repeat doses are usually necessary

Nitro has a short shelf life and is light sensitive

Don't shake the nitro bottle (spray or pill). Nitro in this form is not explosive; however, shaking the pill bottle will likely fracture the pills (never administer a partial pill) and shaking the spray bottle with break down the medication

Be sure to inform the patient that nitro can cause headache and increases heart rate, and that this is a normal side effect. Nitro may also cause vertigo and nausea.

Remind the patient not to swallow the nitro, spray or pill.

Inform the patient that they may expedience a burning sensation under their tongue after administration.