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Flashcards in chapter 8 review Deck (37):

discuss the synoptic planning approach and describe the 3 methods of selecting a preferred course of action w/in process

*rational comprehensive approach - problem oriented apprach
1) preparation for planning
2) present situation described
3) developing projections - consider alternative state
most widely used in p.d.


discuss the characteristics of effective plans

1) specific
2) benefits offset efforts
3) involvement widespread
4) degree of flexibility
5) coordination, development, implementation w/ gov.
6) must be coord & developed w/in agency
7) compare plan vs. results


list 3 major decision making models

rational model
incremental model
heuristic model


discuss simon's concept of bounded rationality

rational choice made on principle of efficiency
3 steps in decision making
1) list alternative strategies
2) determine/calculate all consequences of strategy
3) evaluate all consequences in comparative fashion
rational comprehensive model:
1) i.d. define problem
2) get all info on problem
3) list all alternatives
4) analyze alternatives and asses facts
5) select app. alternative find answers


explain lindbolm's theory of incremental decision making "play it safe"

muddle through problems vs. analytically
provides police & public safeguards against error


describe the decision making process as presented by william Gore Heuristic model

less concrete more "gut feeling" emotional, non rational, highly personalized, subjective process " validity "


recommendations for handling protracted crisis events

nagel-events institutionalized, written directives and assign POC
Police agency adopt philosophy - safety of human life
consider withdrawl
execs consider role of swat
training include leader
outside observers used as referee's reality check


discuss advantages of group decision making

attain proficiency


List steps decision makers should take when confronted w/ ethical issue

recognize ethical issue
get facts
who has important stake in outcome
make decision


what are most common errors in decision making?

cognitive nearsightedness
assumption-future repeat past
over simplification
over reliance on one's own experience
pre-conceived notions
reluctant to decide.
unwillingness to experiment


explain advantages of planning w/in police department

improve analysis, provide better info, objectives, priority, effective allocation, improve inter/intra departmental cooperation, improve performance of programs, give police dep. clear sense direction, provide opportunity greater public support.


____ is a complex process that includes not only procedures for reaching a sound decision on the basis of pertinent knowledge, beliefs, and judgements but also procedures for obtaining the required knowledge, ideas, and preconditions.

decision - making


The dominant tradition in planning is the rational comprehensive approach, also call the

synoptic - approach


the synoptic planning model consists of which of the following activities?



which of the following are the thee techniques involved in the selection of alternatives in synoptic planning?

strategic analysis, cost effectiveness analysis, and must wants analysis


a suitability study of ll alternatives is the first step in

a strategic analysis


The models derived from decision making theory that appear to be basic in most of the literature, include the

rational model
incremental model
heuristic model


simon's model of rationality contends that decision making should

list all alternative strategies
calculate all consequences
evaluate all consequences


simon formulated a modified rational comprehensive idea entitled

bounded rationality


Gore is associated most properly with

gut level approach


police have devised a new technique often referred to as QUAD - provides officers with tactical philosophy and solution to use in situations

quick action development



program evaluation review technique: managerial planning forecasting


which of the following is an advantage found in group decision making

better comprehension of the decision


brainstorming as a function of group decision making was developed to initially

help trigger creative ideas in advertising


which of the following is defined as the standard of behavior that dictates how humans are supposed to act within the roles that they find themselves in



the best way in which to determine the workability of a proposal is to test it first on

limited scale


_____ is simply the process of gathering information about past mistakes and understanding why they happened



_____ involves application of our knowledge our experience and our mental and moral skills and powers to determine what actions should be taken to deal with a variety of problem situation

decision making


______ is an integral element of good management and one of the most critical ingredients to the success of any organizational undertaking



the real purpose of planning is

determining what an organization should do and then doing it


why has strategic analysis been popular in police management

makes a suitable alternative, provides for feasibility studies appraising the effects on a number of factors, and analyzes the retained course of action that is suitable in acceptable studies.


the final step in the synoptic planning model is



within the rational model of decision making, the economic person is presumed to act in a _____ _____ when faced with a decision making situation

rational manner


_____ and ____ are the outcome of a process of bargaining among individuals and groups to support their interests

policy making and general decision making


what does thin slicing theory state

situations where a snap decision is required


social pressure is a ____ ____ for increasing conformity

major force


what is groupthink theory based on

psychological phenomenon that takes place in tight, cohesive groups that are isolated from other political and decision making bodies