Flashcards in Chapter 13 chapter review Deck (27):
2. According to recent medical findings, what is the relationship between diseases of adaption and stress?
Stress does not cause acid reflux etc. but does cause heart disease
3. What are the major characteristics of a type A personalities, type B personalities, and workaholics?
Type A Personality (Higher Risk) •Under constant stress, much of which is self-generated •Continuous pressure to accomplish •Hostile and demanding •Always in a hurry; sense of time urgency •Continuing impatience •Intense and ambitious •Believes time should be used “constructively”
•Has difficulty relaxing and feels guilty when not working •Compelled to challenge, and not understand, another type A personality The qualities underlying type A characteristics include the following: •Constant state of being “on guard” •Hypermasculinity •Constantly working against time •Lack of insight into one’s own psychological needs The physiological implications are as follows: •Seven times as likely to develop heart disease •Higher cholesterol and triglyceride (blood fat) levels (sudden stress increases triglyceride; prolonged stress increases cholesterol) •Clotting elements have greater tendency to form within coronary arteries •Excess accumulation of insulin in blood
Type B Personality (Lower Risk) •Less competitive and less rushed •More easygoing •Better able to separate work from play •Relatively free of a sense of time urgency •Ambitions are kept in perspective •Generally philosophical about life Workaholic (Higher Risk) •This phrase was coined in 1968 •Similar to type A •Has an addiction to work •When absent from the job, may experience withdrawal symptoms similar to those of withdrawal from other addictions •Is agitated and depressed when not working •May account for up to 5 percent of the working world •Typical workaholics •Readily buck the system; often bucked by the bureaucracy •Display well-organized hostility toward the system’s imperfections •Obsessed with perfection in their work •Haunted by deep-seated fear of failure; will “play to win” at all games •Prefer labor to leisure •Constantly juggle two or more tasks (called multitasking) •Many are overachievers and “get things done” •Takes its toll and may result in: •Gastrointestinal problems •Cardiovascular disease •Divorce
Workaholics are married to their work. Their vows to love and honor their spouses above all “others” no longer hold meaning or possibility. No spouse and no family can compete with this all-consuming obsession. Workaholics themselves are a key contributor to the unhealthy family patterns resulting from work addiction for a number of reasons. First, they may have grown up in a dysfunctional family system where role models taught unhealthy patterns of relating to others. Research indicates that the family origin contributes greatly to the development of the workaholic, and the roots of the workaholic’s perfectionism often lie in childhood experiences. 9 In these dysfunctional homes, families reward children for good performance, not for who they are. They give praise and conditional love whenever children perform a certain way or meet certain high expectations. In adulthood, this same need for perfection is the basis for the obsession for work—everything must be done properly and always at a very high level of competence and perfection. Second, the need for workaholics to feel dominant and “in control” may make them less able to relate to peers. They may interact more easily with older and younger
4. What are the sources of stress attached to an officer-involved shooting (OIS)?
•The officer’s own psychological reaction to taking a life •The responses of his or her law enforcement peers and the officer’s family •The rigorous examination by departmental investigators and administrators •The possible disciplinary action or change of assignment •The possibility of criminal prosecution •The possibility of civil litigation •Unwanted media attention.
5. What are the five basic phases of the post-shooting reaction?
1. The first phase occurs prior to the shooting itself and consists of concern about being able to pull the trigger when the time comes and not freezing up and letting one’s fellow officers down. 2. The second phase is the actual killing experience, which is often done reflexively, with officers describing themselves as “going on automatic.” 3. The third stage is that of exhilaration that comes from having been able to put one’s training into action. This exhilaration, fueled by the release of huge amounts of adrenalin, can create a high or rush, which in some cases can give rise to what the military has characterized as “combat addiction.” It has been described as the kind of “adrenalin overdosing” that can negatively impact a police officer’s nervous system and lead to adverse reactions later on (i.e., hesitating to use deadly force when it is clearly justified or overreacting to situations that do not justify the use of deadly force). 19 4. The fourth phase 20 is what police psychologists 21, 22 have called the recoil, remorse and nausea phase. This follows the rush of exhilaration and is often associated with a close-range kill; this is the more common type of response experienced by police officers who tend to confront their adversaries in close quarters, rather than from a distance, which is often the case with military personnel.
The fifth phase, 26 rationalization and acceptance, can be a long process, and many law enforcement officers wrestle with this single event for a lifetime. As the officer begins to come to terms with the shooting episode, a similar resolution or acceptance phase may ensure, wherein the officer assimilates the fact that the use-of-deadly-force-action was necessary and justified in this particular instance. Even under the best of circumstances, resolution may be partial rather than total, and psychological remnants of the experience may continue to haunt the officer periodically, especially during future times of crisis. But in most cases the officer is eventually able to return to work with a reasonable sense of confidence.
6. Alcohol-related problems manifest themselves in police officers in a number of ways. What are they?
not showing up to work
inappropriate language with supervisors or citizens
7. Describe some of the issues that police administrators must deal with in terms of drug use by police officers within their agencies.
•What positions will the employee unions or other employee organizations take if drug testing is proposed? •Who should be tested for drugs? Entry-level officers? Regular officers on a random basis? All officers before they are promoted? Personnel assigned to highprofile units, such as bomb disposal and special tactics and response? •When does a supervisor have “reasonable suspicion” of a subordinate’s drug use? •Who should collect urine or other specimens and under what conditions? •What criteria or standards should be used when selecting a laboratory to conduct the police department’s drug testing program? •What disciplinary action is appropriate when officers are found to have abused drugs? •What duty does an employer have to rehabilitate employees who become disabled as a result of drug abuse?
8. What are the three general principles defined by the courts in relation to random drug testing?
The first is that drug testing—both on the basis of reasonable suspicion and when conducted on a random basis—does not violate the federal Constitution. The second is that, although drug testing may not violate federal Constitutional rights, it may not be permissible under the constitutions of some states.The third principle is that, in states that have granted collective bargaining rights to police officers (see Chapter 11, Labor Relations), drug testing cannot be unilaterally implemented by the employer. Instead, it must be submitted to the collective bargaining process.
9. What are some of the physical and psychological effects of steroid use?
Men Women Both Sexes •Breast enlargement •Testicular atrophy with consequent sterility or decreased sperm count •Impotence •Enlarged prostate •Breast diminution •Clitoral enlargement •Facial hair growth •Deepened voice •Menstrual irregularities •Excessive body hair •Baldness •Increased aggression, known as “roid rage” •Increased risk of heart disease, stroke, or obstructed blood vessels •Acne •Liver tumors, jaundice, and peliosis hepatitis, (blood-filled cysts) •Pre-teens and teenagers: accelerated bone maturation, leading to permanently short stature
10. What are the most common factors related to police suicide?
“Police officers are trained from day one not to show weakness, and officers believe discussion of problems or feelings is evidence of weakness,”
11. What are some of the typical warning signs that an officer might be contemplating suicide?
When officers who have consistently been good performers begin to fail to perform at the optimal level for an extended period of time, the problem might be related to a major depressive episode. Clinicians agree that depression can be so serious that it sometimes results in a homicide, typically of a spouse or significant other, followed by suicide.
12. What are a supervisor’s responsibilities regarding suicidal officers?
supervisors should schedule interviews with officers who appear depressed, sad, hopeless, or discouraged. During this interview, the supervisor should check the officer’s body language, look for sad facial expressions, and be alert to a flat mood. The officer might complain of feeling down, not having any feelings at all, or being anxious. Complaints about bodily aches and pains might be reported to cover the officer’s true feelings.
13. What sources of work satisfaction are stress reducers?
Providing Assistance to Citizens
Exercising Interpersonal Skills
Receiving Peer-Group Support
14. What are some things police departments can do to curtail incidents of domestic violence among their officers?
early warning signs
15. If a police supervisor notices a pattern of controlling or abusive behavior in an officer, what steps should be taken?
supervisors have a responsibility to document the information and notify their immediate ranking supervisor, who will then inform the chief in accordance with the department’s chain of command. After making proper notification, supervisors should inform officers that the behaviors have been documented. A recommendation can be made to officers that they participate voluntarily in a counseling or support program to address the identified issue or behavior.
16. What range of services can be made available to police officers who are involved in domestic violence incidents?
•Employee assistance program referral (discussed later in this chapter) •Internal professional counseling (police psychologist) •External professional counseling (contract/referral) •Advocacy support from local agencies •Peer support program (with clear reporting and confidentiality guidelines)
17. What are some examples of so-called stress inoculation activities?
•Exercise rigorously for 20 to 30 minutes at least three times per week •Maintain a proper diet, including minimizing the intake of foods high in salt and cholesterol •Develop leisure interests and hobbies, such as hiking, tying fishing flies, rock climbing, gardening, collecting stamps, writing poetry and fiction, learning a foreign language, and photography—in other words, learning new things that excite and refresh the mind •Meditate and pray •Avoid maladaptive responses to stress, such as smoking and drinking •Establish support groups •Develop a network of friends, including people outside the department •Monitor yourself; refer yourself for help before you have to be referred; you will avoid some problems, reduce others before they become entrenched, and get more out of the helping process •Use relaxation techniques, such as biofeedback, yoga, progressive muscle relaxation, tai chi, imagery, and breathing exercises •Make sure your career and other expectations are consistent with your actual situation
18. What are some of the benefits of an employee assistance program (EAP) to employees?
many of the largest police departments in the United States had formed “stress units” or other sections to provide help for officers having personal or occupational difficulties.
1. Describe the three stages of the general adaptation syndrome, as described by Hans Selye.
•Alarm •Resistance •Exhaustion
stressful events do not threaten people but provide
Selye - general adaptation
1-alarm - fight or flight
which of the following is not a change to the body at the alarm state: heart increase, adrenaline rush, blood flow decrease to organs, perspiration
blood flow decrease to organs
account 5% of working world
phrase coined in 1968
displays well organized hostility toward systems imperfections
highest stressor ranking
fellow officer being killed - physical attack - battered child
what % of 2.200 officers in national study were found to have serious drug problems
40 yr study shows police suicides misclassified by ___ %
chicago p.d. study - police suicide misclassified ___ %