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Flashcards in chapter 7 key terms Deck (44):


Weber identified three sources: charismatic, traditional, and rational legal. In police departments it is a formal grant to a position, the incumbent uses it to accomplish organizational goals. Also see power.


Big Five:

the traits approach produced long lists of traits; using meta-analysis, five broad trait categories were identified into which the longer lists of traits could be fitted: surency, conscientiousness, agreeableness, adjustment, and intellectance. See Big Two.


Big Two:

a refinement of the Big Five: stability and plasticity.


charismatic leadership:

Charisma was originally thought to be a gift of abilities from above; failures cannot be charismatic, nor can leaders proclaim themselves to be such. Charismatic leaders have seven traits, including having an innovative vision, inspiring and developing followers, and leading their departments to superior performances.



leadership style described by Downs; such leaders invent new functions for their units.


conceptual skills:

the ability to understand and interrelate various parcels of information that seem unrelated or whose meaning or importance is not immediately apparent.



leadership style described by Downs; such leaders exhibit bias toward maintaining things under their control.


counterproductive work behavior (CWB):

behavior that has a detrimental effect on relationships with coworkers and/or the efficiency of operations. democratic: a leadership style; encourages individual and group participation, “let’s talk about it.”


emotional skills (ES):

The ability to accurately perceive and appraise your own emotions and those of others, to regulate your own emotions, and to do so while adapting and responding to the needs of others.


ethical leadership:

consistent demonstration of moral values though personal actions, in interpersonal communications, and the communication of values to followers. Two components: (1) moral person and (2) moral manager.


great man” theories:

two contrasting views: (1) events that must be responded to produce the great man and (2) great men are “born leaders,” exceptionally endowed; one of two branches of traditional leadership theory, the other being the traits approach.


human relations skills:

the capacity to interrelate positively with other people. laissez-faire: a leadership style; takes passive, “hands-off” approach, reluctantly use the authority of one’s position, “whatever.”


leader: can be contrasted with manager:

1) management is the content of a job, being a leader is how you get it done; (2) one person may be a leader, manager, both, or neither; and (3) a leader is identified by the position he or she occupies in the department’s hierarchy. Leaders and managers can be differentiated by the variables identified in Table 7.1. See leadership.


leader member exchange (LMX):

theory by Dansereau, Graen, and Haga; those who are like the leader go to the in-group, those unlike the leader go to the out-group, and those about whom the leader is unsure, go to the try-out bin (1975 ). See life cycle LMX theory (1995).



1) relating the police department to the larger/external environment and (2) influencing officers to use their energies willingly and appropriately to achieve the department’s goals.



how knowledge gets translated into action.


social skills

the ability to express oneself in social situations; the ability to “read” social situations; recognizing different social roles and expected behavior; and interpersonal problem solving; closely related to ES.


socialized power needs:

the desire to have a positive impact on the department’s operations and administration.


spiritual leadership:

leadership divided into two camps: those who are more overtly religious and those who define spirituality in another way. People can be spiritual without being religious, seeking meaning in their lives. Spiritual in this sense means having a closer connection with one’s higher values and morality. Spiritual leadership taps into followers’ higher-order needs (e.g., challenging work that is socially meaningful). See spiritual survival.


spiritual survival:

1) transcendence, a sense of being called to a profession and (2) membership, a sense of belonging.


station house sergeants:

as described by Van Maanen, such sergeants work inside, have a strong conformity orientation, are immersed in the police department’s management culture, and make contacts that can help career.


street sergeants:

as described by Van Maanen, such sergeants have a distaste for office procedures, are action oriented, are more likely to be investigated and sued, and may not advance beyond middle management.


Tannenbaum and Schmidt:

authors who identified a theory of leader styles (1958), revising it to a full situational leadership theory (1973).


technical skills:

skills that are essential to doing a job; vary by level within a police organization (e.g., identifying physical evidence versus preparing a budget).


traits approach:

relatively stable predispositions to behave in a certain way; since roughly 1910 there has been interest in identifying the traits leaders have. Also see great man theory.


transactional leadership:

leadership style that gives something (rewards) to get something (performance by followers). TLers appeal to the self-interest of followers. A basic system of reciprocity. Followers are motivated by lower levels of Maslow’s needs hierarchy.


transformational leadership:

leadership style that inspires followers to “elevate their game,” go beyond self-interests, and make more and larger contributions than they had originally intended. In the process, transformational leaders help them to grow personally and professionally, to develop their own capabilities for leadership. Transformational leaders appeal to followers’ ideals and values, aligning them with the organization’s.



leadership style described by Downs; such leaders have narrow interests, focus almost entirely on them.


leadership neutralizers:

as described by Kerr and Jermier, those who make leadership ineffective or impossible.


leadership substitutes:

as described by Kerr and Jermier, those who diminish or take the place of formal leadership.


least preferred coworker (LPC):

Fiedler’s theory that, underlining LPC is the assumption that how leaders treat their LPC is an indicator of their leadership preference. The relationship of that preference has three situational variables: (1) task structure, (2) leader-follower relations, and (3) the power position of the leader determines group effectiveness. management systems: as described by Likert, a continuum of four leader styles. manager: See leader.


Managerial Grid:

Blake and Mouton’s theory that balances two considerations: (1) concern for people and (2) concern for task to produce five distinct leadership styles.


moral manager:

ethical leadership concept, a fair and principled decision maker, who is altruistic, cares about people and the larger society.


moral person:

ethical leadership concept, proactively strives to reinforce followers’ ethical behavior.


normative decision-making theory:

leadership model by Vroom, Yetton, Jago; not a general model of leadership; narrowly focuses on three leadership approaches to decision-making and provides the greatest probability for a good decision, contingent upon follower characteristics.


organizational citizenship behavior (OCB):

the extra things followers do that are not required, but contribute to organizational effectiveness. See POB.


path-goal theory (PGT):

theory by House, 1996; revised his 1971 theory. The essence of PGT is that for leaders to be effective, they must engage in leader behaviors that compensate for the deficiencies of their subordinates, enhance their performance, and are instrumental to their individual and work unit performance and satisfaction.


personalized power needs:

the desire to be in control for selfish, self-aggrandizing reasons.


positive organizational behavior (POB):

a broader cluster of organizational behaviors that contribute to its overall success; OCB is included within POB by some researchers.



when a formal grant of authority is made, some power inherently accompanies it, to maintain standards, correct deficiencies, and discipline as needed. However, even with authority and power, leaders may not be able to compel others to perform. To a significant degree, power is a grant made by the led to the leader. Also see authority.


power motivation:

see affiliation, personalized power, and socialized power needs.


servant leadership:

as described by Greenleaf, primary orientation is the theory that leaders should first be servants, meeting the legitimate needs of their followers.


situational leadership:

leadership model by Hersey and Blanchard; relates the behavior of the leaders to the maturity of followers, identifies the most probable successful leader behaviors for each level of maturity.



a leadership style; makes all decisions, closely controls work, a micromanager, “my way or the highway.”