classic presentations 1 Flashcards Preview

2016 Rapid Review! > classic presentations 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in classic presentations 1 Deck (40):
1

Abdominal pain, ascites, hepatomegaly

Budd-Chiari syndrome (posthepatic venous thrombosis)

2

Abdominal pain, diarrhea, leukocytosis, recent antibiotic use

Clostridium difficile infection

3

Achilles tendon xanthoma

Familial hypercholesterolemia (LDL receptor signaling)

4

Adrenal hemorrhage, hypotension, DIC

Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome (meningococcemia)

5

Anaphylaxis following blood transfusion

IgA deficiency

6

Anterior “drawer sign” ⊕

Anterior cruciate ligament injury

7

Arachnodactyly, lens dislocation (upward), aortic dissection, hyperflexible joints

Marfan syndrome (fibrillin defect)

8

Athlete with polycythemia

2° to erythropoietin injection

9

Back pain, fever, night sweats

Pott disease (vertebral TB)

10

Bilateral acoustic schwannomas

Neurofibromatosis type 2

11

Bilateral hilar adenopathy, uveitis

Sarcoidosis (noncaseating granulomas)

12

Black eschar on face of patient with diabetic ketoacidosis

Mucor or Rhizopus fungal infection

13

Blue sclera

Osteogenesis imperfecta (type I collagen defect)

14

Bluish line on gingiva

Burton line (lead poisoning)

15

Bone pain, bone enlargement, arthritis

Paget disease of bone (^osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity)

16

Bounding pulses, wide pulse pressure, diastolic heart murmur, head bobbing

Aortic regurgitation

17

“Butterfly” facial rash and Raynaud phenomenon in a young female

Systemic lupus erythematosus

18

Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), cutaneous neurofibromas, pheochromocytomas, optic gliomas

Neurofibromatosis type I

19

Café-au-lait spots (unilateral), polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, precocious puberty, multiple endocrine abnormalities

McCune-Albright syndrome (mosaic G-protein signaling mutation)

20

Calf pseudohypertrophy

Muscular dystrophy (most commonly Duchenne, due to X-linked recessive frameshift mutation of dystrophin gene)

21

Cervical lymphadenopathy, desquamating rash, coronary aneurysms, red conjunctivae and tongue, hand-foot changes

Kawasaki disease (treat with IVIG and aspirin)

22

“Cherry-red spots” on macula

Tay-Sachs (ganglioside accumulation) or Niemann-Pick (sphingomyelin accumulation), central retinal artery occlusion

23

Chest pain on exertion

Angina (stable: with moderate exertion; unstable: with minimal exertion or at rest)

24

Chest pain, pericardial effusion/friction rub, persistent fever following MI

Dressler syndrome (autoimmune-mediated post-MI fibrinous pericarditis, 2 weeks to several months after acute episode)

25

Chest pain with ST depressions on EKG

Unstable angina (⊝ troponins) or NSTEMI (⊕ troponins)

26

Child uses arms to stand up from squat

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (Gowers sign)

27

Child with fever later develops red rash on face that spreads to body

Erythema infectiosum/fifth disease (“slapped cheeks” appearance, caused by parvovirus B19)

28

Chorea, dementia, caudate degeneration

Huntington disease (autosomal dominant CAG repeat expansion)

29

Chorioretinitis, hydrocephalus, intracranial calcifications

Congenital toxoplasmosis

30

Chronic exercise intolerance with myalgia, fatigue, painful cramps, myoglobinuria

McArdle disease (skeletal muscle glycogen phosphorylase deficiency)

31

Cold intolerance

Hypothyroidism

32

Conjugate horizontal gaze palsy, horizontal diplopia

Internuclear ophthalmoplegia (damage to MLF; may be unilateral or bilateral)

33

Continuous “machine-like” heart murmur

PDA (close with indomethacin; keep open with PGE analogs)

34

Cutaneous/dermal edema due to connective tissue deposition

Myxedema (caused by hypothyroidism, Graves disease [pretibial])

35

Cutaneous flushing, diarrhea, bronchospasm

Carcinoid syndrome (right-sided cardiac valvular lesions, ^5-HIAA)

36

Dark purple skin/mouth nodules in a patient with AIDS

Kaposi sarcoma, associated with HHV-8

37

Deep, labored breathing/hyperventilation

Diabetic ketoacidosis (Kussmaul respirations)

38

Dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea

Pellagra (niacin [vitamin B3] deficiency)

39

Dilated cardiomyopathy, edema, alcoholism or malnutrition

Wet beriberi (thiamine [vitamin B1] deficiency)

40

Dog or cat bite resulting in infection

Pasteurella multocida (cellulitis at inoculation site)