key associations 1 Flashcards Preview

2016 Rapid Review! > key associations 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in key associations 1 Deck (45):
1

Actinic (solar) keratosis

Precursor to squamous cell carcinoma

2

Acute gastric ulcer associated with CNS injury

Cushing ulcer (^intracranial pressure stimulates vagal gastric H+ secretion)

3

Acute gastric ulcer associated with severe burns

Curling ulcer (greatly reduced plasma volume results in sloughing of gastric mucosa)

4

Age ranges for patient with ALL/CLL/AML/CML

ALL: child, CLL: adult > 60, AML: adult ∼ 65, CML: adult 45–85

5

Alternating areas of transmural inflammation and normal colon

Skip lesions (Crohn disease)

6

Aortic aneurysm, abdominal

Atherosclerosis

7

Aortic aneurysm, ascending or arch

3° syphilis (syphilitic aortitis), vasa vasorum destruction

8

Aortic aneurysm, thoracic

Marfan syndrome (idiopathic cystic medial degeneration)

9

Aortic dissection

Hypertension

10

Atrophy of the mammillary bodies

Wernicke encephalopathy (thiamine deficiency causing ataxia, ophthalmoplegia, and confusion)

11

Autosplenectomy (fibrosis and shrinkage)

Sickle cell disease (hemoglobin S)

12

Bacteria associated with gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and gastric malignancies (eg, adenocarcinoma, MALToma)

H pylori

13

Bacterial meningitis (adults and elderly)

S pneumoniae

14

Bacterial meningitis (newborns and kids)

Group B streptococcus/E coli (newborns), S pneumoniae/N meningitidis (kids/teens)

15

Bilateral ovarian metastases from gastric carcinoma

Krukenberg tumor (mucin-secreting signet ring cells)

16

Bleeding disorder with GpIb deficiency

Bernard-Soulier syndrome (defect in platelet adhesion to von Willebrand factor)

17

Brain tumor (adults)

Supratentorial: metastasis, astrocytoma (including glioblastoma multiforme), meningioma, schwannoma

18

Brain tumor (kids) Infratentorial:

medulloblastoma (cerebellum) or supratentorial: craniopharyngioma

19

Breast cancer

Invasive ductal carcinoma

20

Breast mass

Fibrocystic change, carcinoma (in postmenopausal women)

21

Breast tumor (benign, young woman)

Fibroadenoma

22

Cardiac 1° tumor (kids)

Rhabdomyoma, often seen in tuberous sclerosis

23

Cardiac manifestation of lupus

Marantic/thrombotic endocarditis (nonbacterial)

24

Cardiac tumor (adults)

Metastasis, myxoma (90% in left atrium; “ball and valve”)

25

Cerebellar tonsillar herniation

Chiari II malformation

26

Chronic arrhythmia

Atrial fibrillation (associated with high risk of emboli)

27

Chronic atrophic gastritis (autoimmune)

Predisposition to gastric carcinoma (can also cause pernicious anemia)

28

Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina

DES exposure in utero

29

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia, hypotension

21-hydroxylase deficiency

30

Congenital cardiac anomaly

VSD

31

Congenital conjugated hyperbilirubinemia (black liver)

Dubin-Johnson syndrome (inability of hepatocytes to secrete conjugated bilirubin into bile)

32

Constrictive pericarditis

TB (developing world); idiopathic, viral illness (developed world)

33

Coronary artery involved in thrombosis

LAD > RCA > circumflex

34

Cretinism

Iodine deficit/congenital hypothyroidism

35

Cushing syndrome ƒ

Iatrogenic (from corticosteroid therapy)
ƒ Adrenocortical adenoma (secretes excess cortisol)
ƒ ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma (Cushing disease) ƒ Paraneoplastic (due to ACTH secretion by tumors)

36

Cyanosis (early; less common)

Tetralogy of Fallot, transposition of great vessels, truncus arteriosus

37

Death in CML

Blast crisis

38

Death in SLE

Lupus nephropathy

39

Dementia

Alzheimer disease, multiple infarcts (vascular dementia)

40

Demyelinating disease in young women

Multiple sclerosis

41

DIC

Severe sepsis, obstetric complications, cancer, burns, trauma, major surgery, acute pancreatitis, APL (AML M3)

42

Diverticulum in pharynx

Zenker diverticulum (diagnosed by barium swallow)

43

Ejection click

Aortic stenosis

44

Esophageal cancer

Squamous cell carcinoma (worldwide); adenocarcinoma (US)

45

Food poisoning (exotoxin mediated)

S aureus, B cereus