classic labs/findings 1 Flashcards Preview

2016 Rapid Review! > classic labs/findings 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in classic labs/findings 1 Deck (35):
1

^AFP in amniotic fluid/maternal serum

Dating error, anencephaly, spina bifida (neural tube defects)

2

Anticentromere antibodies

Scleroderma (CREST)

3

Anti-desmoglein (anti-desmosome) antibodies

Pemphigus vulgaris (blistering)

4

Anti–glomerular basement membrane antibodies

Goodpasture syndrome (glomerulonephritis and hemoptysis)

5

Antihistone antibodies

Drug-induced SLE (eg, hydralazine, isoniazid, phenytoin, procainamide)

6

Anti-IgG antibodies

Rheumatoid arthritis (systemic inflammation, joint pannus, boutonnière deformity)

7

Antimitochondrial antibodies (AMAs)

1° biliary cirrhosis (female, cholestasis, portal hypertension)

8

Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs)

Microscopic polyangiitis and eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss syndrome) (MPO-ANCA/
p-ANCA); granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener; PR3- ANCA/c-ANCA)

9

Antinuclear antibodies (ANAs: anti-Smith and anti-dsDNA)

SLE (type III hypersensitivity)

10

Antiplatelet antibodies

Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura

11

Anti-topoisomerase antibodies

Diffuse systemic scleroderma

12

Anti-transglutaminase/anti-gliadin/anti-endomysial antibodies

Celiac disease (diarrhea, weight loss)

13

“Apple core” lesion on barium enema x-ray

Colorectal cancer (usually left-sided)

14

Atypical lymphocytes

EBV

15

Azurophilic peroxidase ⊕ granular inclusions in granulocytes and myeloblasts

Auer rods (AML, especially the promyelocytic [M3] type)

16

Bacitracin response

Sensitive: S pyogenes (group A); resistant: S agalactiae (group B)

17

“Bamboo spine” on x-ray

Ankylosing spondylitis (chronic inflammatory arthritis: HLA-B27)

18

Basophilic nuclear remnants in RBCs

Howell-Jolly bodies (due to splenectomy or nonfunctional spleen)

19

Basophilic stippling of RBCs

Lead poisoning or sideroblastic anemia

20

Bloody or yellow tap on lumbar puncture

Subarachnoid hemorrhage

21

“Boot-shaped” heart on x-ray

Tetralogy of Fallot (due to RVH)

22

Branching gram ⊕ rods with sulfur granules

Actinomyces israelii

23

Bronchogenic apical lung tumor on imaging

Pancoast tumor (can compress cervical sympathetic chain and cause Horner syndrome)

24

“Brown” tumor of bone

Hyperparathyroidism or osteitis fibrosa cystica (deposited hemosiderin from hemorrhage gives brown color)

25

Cardiomegaly with apical atrophy

Chagas disease (Trypanosoma cruzi)

26

Cellular crescents in Bowman capsule

Rapidly progressive crescentic glomerulonephritis

27

"Chocolate cyst” of ovary

Endometriosis (frequently involves both ovaries)

28

Circular grouping of dark tumor cells surrounding pale neurofibrils

Homer-Wright rosettes (neuroblastoma, medulloblastoma)

29

Colonies of mucoid Pseudomonas in lungs

Cystic fibrosis (autosomal recessive mutation in CFTR gene-->Žfat-soluble vitamin deficiency and mucous plugs)

30

decreased AFP in amniotic fluid/maternal serum

Down syndrome or other chromosomal abnormalities

31

Degeneration of dorsal column fibers

Tabes dorsalis (3° syphilis), subacute combined degeneration (dorsal columns, lateral corticospinal, spinocerebellar tracts
affected)

32

“Delta wave” on EKG, short PR interval, supraventricular

Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (Bundle of Kent bypasses tachycardia AV node)

33

Depigmentation of neurons in substantia nigra

Parkinson disease (basal ganglia disorder: rigidity, resting tremor, bradykinesia)

34

Desquamated epithelium casts in sputum

Curschmann spirals (bronchial asthma; can result in whorled mucous plugs)

35

Disarrayed granulosa cells arranged around collections of eosinophilic fluid

Call-Exner bodies (granulosa cell tumor of the ovary)