classic labs/findings 3 Flashcards Preview

2016 Rapid Review! > classic labs/findings 3 > Flashcards

Flashcards in classic labs/findings 3 Deck (42):
1

Narrowing of bowel lumen on barium x-ray

“String sign” (Crohn disease)

2

Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis

Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener; PR3-ANCA/c-ANCA) and Goodpasture syndrome (anti–basement
membrane antibodies)

3

Needle-shaped, ⊝ birefringent crystals

Gout (monosodium urate crystals)

4

Nodular hyaline deposits in glomeruli

Kimmelstiel-Wilson nodules (diabetic nephropathy)

5

Novobiocin response

Sensitive: S epidermidis; resistant: S saprophyticus

6

“Nutmeg” appearance of liver

Chronic passive congestion of liver due to right heart failure or Budd-Chiari syndrome

7

“Onion skin” periosteal reaction

Ewing sarcoma (malignant small blue cell tumor)

8

Optochin response

Sensitive: S pneumoniae; resistant: viridans streptococci (S mutans, S sanguis)

9

Podocyte fusion or “effacement” on electron microscopy

Minimal change disease (child with nephrotic syndrome)

10

Polished, “ivory-like” appearance of bone at cartilage erosion

Eburnation (osteoarthritis resulting in bony sclerosis)

11

Protein aggregates in neurons from hyperphosphorylation of tau protein

Neurofibrillary tangles (Alzheimer disease) and Pick bodies (Pick disease)

12

Psammoma bodies

Papillary serous carcinoma of the endometrium and ovary
Serous papillary thyroid carcinoma
Meningioma
Malignant mesothelioma

13

Pseudopalisading tumor cells on brain biopsy

Glioblastoma multiforme

14

Raised periosteum (creating a “Codman triangle”)

Aggressive bone lesion (eg, osteosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, osteomyelitis)

15

RBC casts in urine

Glomerulonephritis

16

Rectangular, crystal-like, cytoplasmic inclusions in Leydig cells

Reinke crystals (Leydig cell tumor)

17

Recurrent infections, eczema, thrombocytopenia

Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome
(WAS gene mutation; T cells unable to reorganize actin cytoskeleton. X-linked recessive)

18

Renal epithelial casts in urine

Intrinsic renal failure (eg, ischemia or toxic injury)

19

Rhomboid crystals, ⊕ birefringent

Pseudogout (calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals)

20

Rib notching (inferior surface, on x-ray)

Coarctation of the aorta

21

Ring-enhancing brain lesion on CT/MRI in AIDS

Toxoplasma gondii, CNS lymphoma

22

Sheets of medium-sized lymphoid cells with scattered pale, tingible body–laden macrophages (“starry sky” histology)

Burkitt lymphoma (t[8:14] c-myc activation, associated with EBV; “starry sky” made up of malignant cells)

23

Silver-staining spherical aggregation of tau proteins in neurons

Pick bodies (Pick disease: progressive dementia, changes in personality)

24

“Soap bubble” in femur or tibia on x-ray

Giant cell tumor of bone (generally benign)

25

“Spikes” on basement membrane, “dome-like” subepithelial deposits

Membranous nephropathy (nephrotic syndrome)

26

Stacks of RBCs

Rouleaux formation (high ESR, multiple myeloma)

27

“Steeple” sign on frontal CXR

Croup (parainfluenza virus)

28

Stippled vaginal epithelial cells

“Clue cells” (Gardnerella vaginalis)

29

Streptococcus bovis bacteremia

Colon cancer

30

“Tennis racket”-shaped cytoplasmic organelles (EM) in Langerhans cells

Birbeck granules (Langerhans cell histiocytosis)

31

Thousands of polyps on colonoscopy

Familial adenomatous polyposis (autosomal dominant, mutation of APC gene)

32

Thrombi made of white/red layers

Lines of Zahn (arterial thrombus, layers of platelets/RBCs)

33

“Thumb sign” on lateral neck x-ray

Epiglottitis (Haemophilus influenzae)

34

Thyroid-like appearance of kidney

Chronic pyelonephritis (usually due to recurrent infections)

35

“Tram-track” appearance of capillary loops of glomerular basement membranes on light microscopy

Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis

36

Triglyceride accumulation in liver cell vacuoles

Fatty liver disease (alcoholic or metabolic syndrome)

37

^uric acid levels

Gout, Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, tumor lysis syndrome, loop and thiazide diuretics

38

“Waxy” casts with very low urine flow

Chronic end-stage renal disease

39

WBC casts in urine

Acute pyelonephritis

40

WBCs that look “smudged”

CLL (almost always B cell)

41

“Wire loop” glomerular capillary appearance on light microscopy

Diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis (usually seen with lupus)

42

Yellowish CSF

Xanthochromia (eg, due to subarachnoid hemorrhage)