tumor markers/metastasis Flashcards Preview

2016 Rapid Review! > tumor markers/metastasis > Flashcards

Flashcards in tumor markers/metastasis Deck (15):
1

Alkaline phosphatase
AP/alk phos

Metastases to bone or liver, Paget disease of bone, seminoma (placental ALP)

2

α-fetoprotein
α-FP

Hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatoblastoma, yolk sac (endodermal sinus) tumor, mixed germ cell tumor.
Normally made by fetus. Transiently elevated in pregnancy. High levels associated with neural tube and abdominal wall defects, low levels associated with Down syndrome.

3

β-hCG

Hydatidiform moles and Choriocarcinomas (Gestational trophoblastic disease), testicular cancer, mixed germ cell tumor.
-Produced by syncytiotrophoblasts of the placenta.

4

CA 15-3/CA 27-29

Breast cancer

5

CA 19-9

Pancreatic adenocarcinoma

6

CA 125

Ovarian cancer

7

Calcitonin

Medullary thyroid carcinoma

8

CEA

CarcinoEmbryonic Antigen. Very nonspecific but produced by ∼ 70% of colorectal and pancreatic cancers; also produced by gastric, breast, and medullary thyroid carcinomas.

9

PSA

Prostate-specific antigen. Prostate cancer.
Can also be elevated in BPH and prostatitis. Questionable risk/benefit for screening.

10

P-glycoprotein

multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1). Classically seen in adrenal cell carcinoma but also expressed by other cancer cells (eg, colon, liver). Used to pump out toxins, including chemotherapeutic agents (one mechanism of decreased responsiveness or resistance to chemotherapy over time)

11

Cachexia mediators

TNF, IFN-γ, IL-1, and IL-6

12

common metastases

Most sarcomas spread hematogenously; most carcinomas spread via lymphatics (except hepatocellular carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma, follicular thyroid carcinoma, and choriocarcinoma).

13

metastasis to brain

1o Tumor:
Lung > breast > prostate > melanoma > GI.
-50% of brain tumors are from metastases Commonly seen as multiple well-circumscribed
tumors at gray/white matter junction.

14

metastasis to liver

1o Tumor: Colon >> stomach > pancreas
Liver and lung are the most common sites of metastasis after the regional lymph nodes

15

metastasis to bone

1o Tumor: Prostate, breast > lung, thyroid, kidney
Bone metastasis >> 1° bone tumors (eg, multiple myeloma, lytic). Common mets to bone: breast (mixed), lung (mixed), thyroid (lytic), kidney (lytic), prostate (blastic). Predilection for axial skeleton