Flashcards in tumor markers/metastasis Deck (15):
Metastases to bone or liver, Paget disease of bone, seminoma (placental ALP)
Hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatoblastoma, yolk sac (endodermal sinus) tumor, mixed germ cell tumor.
Normally made by fetus. Transiently elevated in pregnancy. High levels associated with neural tube and abdominal wall defects, low levels associated with Down syndrome.
Hydatidiform moles and Choriocarcinomas (Gestational trophoblastic disease), testicular cancer, mixed germ cell tumor.
-Produced by syncytiotrophoblasts of the placenta.
CA 15-3/CA 27-29
Medullary thyroid carcinoma
CarcinoEmbryonic Antigen. Very nonspecific but produced by ∼ 70% of colorectal and pancreatic cancers; also produced by gastric, breast, and medullary thyroid carcinomas.
Prostate-specific antigen. Prostate cancer.
Can also be elevated in BPH and prostatitis. Questionable risk/benefit for screening.
multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1). Classically seen in adrenal cell carcinoma but also expressed by other cancer cells (eg, colon, liver). Used to pump out toxins, including chemotherapeutic agents (one mechanism of decreased responsiveness or resistance to chemotherapy over time)
TNF, IFN-γ, IL-1, and IL-6
Most sarcomas spread hematogenously; most carcinomas spread via lymphatics (except hepatocellular carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma, follicular thyroid carcinoma, and choriocarcinoma).
metastasis to brain
Lung > breast > prostate > melanoma > GI.
-50% of brain tumors are from metastases ￼Commonly seen as multiple well-circumscribed
tumors at gray/white matter junction.
metastasis to liver
1o Tumor: Colon >> stomach > pancreas
Liver and lung are the most common sites of metastasis after the regional lymph nodes