Classic Presentations A--L Flashcards Preview

USMLE Step 1 > Classic Presentations A--L > Flashcards

Flashcards in Classic Presentations A--L Deck (59):
1

Abdominal pain, ascites, hepatomegaly

Budd-Chiari Syndrome (posthepatic veinous thrombosis)

2

Achilles tendon xanthoma

Familial hypercholesterolemia (decreased LDL receptor signaling)

3

Anterior "drawer" sign

ACL injury

4

Arachnodactyly, lens dislocation, aortic dissection, hyperflexible joints

Marfan syndrome (fibrillin defect)

5

Athlete w/ polycythemia

2/2 EPO injection

6

Back pain, fever, night sweats, weight loss

Pott disease (vertebral TB)

7

Bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy, uveitis

sarcoidosis (non caseating granulomas)

8

Blue sclera

osteogenesis imperfecta (type 1 collagen defect)

9

Bluish line on gingiva

Burton line (lead poisoning)

10

Bone pain, bone enlargement, arthritis

Paget disease of bone (incr osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity)

11

Bounding pulses, diastolic heart murmur, head bobbing

aortic regurgitation

12

"butterfly" facial rash and raynaud phenomenon in a young female

SLE

13

Cafe-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma)

NF Type 1 (+pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas)

14

Cafe-au-lait spots, polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, precocious puberty, multiple endocrine abnormalities

McCune-Albright syndrome (mosaic G-protein signaling mutation)

15

Calf pseudohypertrophy

muscular dystrophy (most commonly Duchenne): x-linked recessive deletion of dystrophin gene

16

"cherry red spots" on macula

Tay sachs (ganglioside accumulation) or Niemann-pick (sphingomyelin accumulation), central retinal artery occlusion

17

chest pain on exertion

angina (stable: with moderate exertion; unstable: with minimal exertion)

18

chest pain, pericardial effusion/friction rub, persistent fever following MI

Dressler syndrome (auto-immune mediated post-MI fibrinous pericarditis, 1-12 weeks after acute episode)

19

Child uses arms to stand up from squat

Gower's sign (Duchenne muscular dystrophy)

20

Child w/ fever later develops red rash on face that spreads to body

"slapped cheeks" (erythema infectiosum/5th disease; parvovirus B19)

21

Chorea, dementia, caudate degeneration

Huntington disease (autosomal dominant CAG repeat expansion)

22

Chronic exercise intolerance with myalgia, fatigue, painful cramps, myoglobinuria

McArdle disease (muscle glycogen phosphorylase deficiency)

23

cold intolerance

Hypothyroidism

24

Conjugate lateral gaze palsy, horizontal diplopia

Internuclear opthalmoplegia (damage to MLF; bilateral-- multiple sclerosis, unilateral--stroke)

25

continuous "machine-like" heart murmur

PDA (close with indomethacin; keep open with misoprostol--PGE2)

26

Cutaneous/dermal edema due to connective tissue deposition

Myxedema (caused by hypothyroidism, Graves disease-pretibial myxedema)

27

Dark purple skin/mouth nodules in a patient with AIDS

Kaposi sarcoma, associated with HHV-8

28

Deep, labored breathing/hyperventilation

Kussmaul respirations (DKA)

29

Dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea

Pellagra (niacin B3 deficiency)

30

Dilated cardiomyopathy, edema, alcoholism or malnutrition

Wet beriberi (thiamine B1 deficiency)

31

Dog or cat bite resulting in infection

Pasteurella multocida (cellulitis at inoculation site)

32

Dry eyes, dry mouth, arthritis

Sjogren syndrome (autoimmune destruction of exocrine glands)

33

Dysphagia (esophageal webs), glossitis, iron deficiency, anemia

Plummer-Vinson syndrome (may progress to esophageal squamous cell carcinoma)

34

Elastic skin, hypermobility of joints

Ehler-Danlos syndrome (Type 3 collage defect)

35

Enlarged, hard left supraclavicular node

Virchow node (abdominal metastasis)

36

Erythroderma, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, atypical T cells

Mycosis fungoides (cutaneous T cell lymphoma) or Sezary syndrome (mycosis fungoides + malignant T cells in blood)

37

Facial muscle spasm upon tapping

Chvostek sign (hypocalcemia)

38

Fat, female, forty, fertile

Cholelithiasis (gallstones)

39

Fever, chills, headache, myalgia following antibiotic treatment for syphilis

Jarisch-Herxheimer rxn (rapid lysis of spirochetes results in toxin release)

40

Fever, cough, conjunctivitis, coryza, diffuse rash

Measles

41

Fever, night sweats, weight loss

B symptoms (staging) of lymphoma

42

Fibrous plaques in soft tissue of penis

Peyronie disease (connective tissue disorder)

43

Gout, intellectual disability, self-mutilating behavior in boy

Lesch-Nyhan syndrome (HGPRT deficiency, X-linked recessive)

44

Green-yellow rings around peripheral cornea

Kayser-Fleischer rings (Cu accumulation from Wilson disease)

45

Hamartomatous GI polyps, hyperpigmentation of mouth/feet/hands

Peutz-Jehgers syndrome (inherited, benign polyposis can cause bowel obstruction; increased cancer risk, mainly GI)

46

Hepatosplenomegaly, osteoporosis, neurologic symptoms

Gaucher disease (glucocerebrosidase deficiency)

47

Hereditary nephritis, sensorineural hearing loss, cataracts

Alport syndrome (mutation in collagen 4)

48

Hyperphagia, hypersexuality, hyperorality, hyperdocility

Kluver-Bucy syndrome (bilateral amygdala lesion)

49

Hyperreflexia, hypertonia, Babinski sign present

UMN damage

50

Hyporeflexia, hypotonia, atrophy, fasciculations

LMN damage

51

Hypoxemia, polycythemia, hypercapnia

"Blue bloater" (chronic bronchitis: hyperplasia of mucous cells)

52

Indurated, ulcerated genital lesion

Nonpainful: chancre (primary syphilis, Treponema pallidum) Painful, with exudate: chancroid (Haemophilus ducreyi)

53

Infant with cleft lip/palate, microcephaly or holoprosencephaly, polydactyly, cutis aplasia

Patau Syndrome (trisomy 13)--decreased bHCG, decr PAPP-A, increased nuchal translucency

54

Infant with failure to thrive, hepatosplenomegaly, and neurodegeneration

Niemann-Pick disease (genetic sphingomyelinase deficiency)

55

Infant with hypoglycemia, failure to thrive, and hepatomegaly

Cori disease (debranching enzyme deficiency) or Von Gierke disease (glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency, more severe)

56

Infant with microcephaly, rocker-bottom feet, clenched hands, structural heart defects

Edwards syndrome (trisomy 18)--decreased PAPPA and free BhCG; quad screen: pan decreased AFP/bHCG/estriol/inhibin; inhibin can be normal

57

Jaundice, palpable distended non-tender gallbladder

Courvoisier sign (distal obstruction of biliary tree)--indicative of non-gallstone pathology: pancreatic cancer, gallbladder cancer, cholangiocarcinoma, etc

58

Large rash with bull's eye appearance

Erythema chronicum migrans from Ixodes tick bite (Lyme disease: Borrelia)

59

Lucid interval after traumatic brain injury

Epidural hematoma (middle meningeal artery rupture)