Key Associations Part 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Key Associations Part 2 Deck (74):
1

Holosystolic murmur

VSD, tricuspid regurgitation, mitral regurgitation

2

Hypercoagulability, endothelial damage, blood stasis

Virchow triad (results in venous thrombosis)

3

Hypertension, secondary

Renal disease

4

Hypoparathyroidism

Accidental excision during thyroidectomy

5

Hypopituitarism

Pituitary adenoma (usually benign tumor)

6

Infection secondary to blood transfusion

Hep C

7

Infectionsin chronic granulomatous disease

Staphylococcus aureus, E coli, Aspergillus (catalase +)

8

Intellectual disability

Down syndrome, fragile X syndrome

9

Kidney stone

Calcium: radiopaque
Struvite (ammonium): radiopaque (formed by urease + organisms such as Proteus vulgaris or Staphylococcus)
Uric acid: radiolucent

10

Late cyanotic shunt (uncorrected left to right becomes right to left)

Eisenmeger syndrome (caused by ASD, VSD, PDA: results in pulmonary HTN/polycythemia)

11

Liver disease

Alcoholic cirrhosis

12

Lysosomal storage disease

Gaucher disease

13

Male cancer

Prostatic carcinoma

14

Malignancy associated with noninfectious fever

Hodgkin lymphoma

15

Malignancy (kids)

ALL, neuroblastoma (cerebellum)

16

Metastases to bone

Prostate, breast > lung > thyroid

17

Metastasis to brain

Lung > breast > genitourinary > melanoma > GI

18

Metastasis to liver

Colon >> stomach, pancreas

19

Mitochondrial inheritance

Disease occurs in both males and females, inherited through females only

20

Mitral valve stenosis

Rheumatic heart disease

21

Mixed (UMN and LMN) motor neuron disease

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

22

Myocarditis

coxsackie B virus

23

Nephrotic syndrome (adults)

Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis

24

Nephrotic syndrome (kids)

Minimal change disease

25

Neuron migration failure

Kallman syndrome (hypogonadotropic, hypogonadism and anosmia)

26

Nosocomial pneumonia

Klebsiella, E coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa

27

Obstruction of male urinary tract

BPH

28

Opening snap

mitral stenosis

29

Opportunistic infection in AIDs

PCP pneumonia

30

Osteomyelitis

S aureus

31

Osteomyelitis in sickle cell disease

Salmonella

32

Osteomyelitis with IV drug use

Pseudomonas, S aureus

33

Ovarian metastases from gastric carcinoma or breast cancer

Krukenberg tumor (mucin secreting signet ring cells)

34

Ovarian tumor (benign, bilateral)

Serous cystadenoma

35

Ovarian tumor (malignant)

Serous cystadenocarcinoma

36

Pancreatitis (acute)

Gallstones, alcohol

37

Pancreatitis (chronic)

Alcohol (adults), cystic fibrosis (kids)

38

Patient with ALL/CLL/AML/CML

ALL: child, CLL: adult > 60, AML: adult ~65, CML: adult 30-60

39

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae

40

Philadelphia chromosome t(9:22) (bcr-abl)

CML (may sometimes be associated with ALL/AML)

41

Pituitary tumor

Prolactinoma, somatotropic "acidophilic" adenoma

42

Primary amenorrhea

Turner syndrome (45, XO)

43

Primary bone tumor (adults)

Multiple myeloma

44

Primary hyperaldosteronism

Adenoma of adrenal cortex

45

Primary hyperPTH

Adenomas, hyperplasia, carcinoma

46

Primary liver cancer

Hepatocellular carcinoma (chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, hemochromatosis, alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency)

47

Pulmonary HTN

COPD

48

Recurrent inflammation/thrombosis of small/medium vessels in extremeties

Buerger disease (strongly associated with tobacco)

49

Renal tumor

Renal cell carcinoma: associated with von Hippel-Landau and cigarette smoking; paraneoplastic syndromes (EPO, renin, PTH, ACTH)

50

Right heart failure due to a pulmonary cause

Cor pulmonale

51

S3 (protodiastolic gallop)

Increased ventricular filling (left to right shunt, mitral regurg, LV failure [CHF])

52

S4 (presystolic gallop)

Stiff/hypertrophic ventricle (aortic stenosis, restrictive cardiomyopathy)

53

Secondary hyperPTH

Hypocalcemia of chronic kidney disease

54

Sexually transmitted disease

Chlamydia (usually coninfected with gonorrhea)

55

SIADH

Small cell carcinoma of the lung

56

Site of diverticula

Sigmoid colon

57

Sites of atherosclerosis

Abdominal aorta > coronary artery > popliteal artery > carotid artery

58

Stomach cancer

Adenocarcinoma

59

Stomach ulcerations and high gastrin levels

Zollinger-Elson syndrome (gastrinoma of the duodenum or pancreas)

60

t(14,18)

Follicular lymphomas (bcl2 activation, IgH translocation)

61

t(8;14)

Burkitt Lymphoma (c-myc activation, IgH)

62

t(9;22)

Philadelphia chromosome, CML (bcr-abl fusion)

63

Temporal arteritis

Risk of ipsilateral blindness due to thrombosis of ophthalmic artery; polymyalgia rheumatica

64

Testicular tumor

Seminoma (malignant, radiosensitive)

65

Thyroid cancer

Papillary carcinoma

66

Tumor in women

Leiomyoma (estrogen dependent, not precancerous)

67

Tumor of infancy

Hemangioma (usually regresses spontaneously by childhood)

68

Tumor of the adrenal medulla (adults)

Pheochromocytoma (usually benign)

69

Tumor of the adrenal medulla (kids)

Neuroblastoma (malignant)

70

Type of Hodgkin

Nodular sclerosis (vs mixed cellularity, lymphocytic predominance, lymphocytic depletion)

71

Type of non-Hodgkin

Diffuse large cell

72

UTI

E coli, Staphylococcus saprophyticus (young women)

73

Viral encephalitis affecting temporal lobe

HSV-1

74

Vitamin deficiency (US)

Folate (pregnant women are at high risk; body stores only 3-4 mo supply; prevents neural tube defects)