Respiratory Flashcards Preview

USMLE Step 1 > Respiratory > Flashcards

Flashcards in Respiratory Deck (22):
1

IC

IRV + TV

2

FRC

RV + ERV

3

VC

TV + IRV + ERV

4

TLC

IRV + TV + ERV + RV

5

hypoxemia, neurologic abnormalities, and petechial rash, bone trauma

fat embolism

6

hyperplasia of mucus secreting glands in the bronchi

chronic bronchitis

7

What does elastase do in emphysema to lung compliance?

Increased elastase activity results in loss of elastic fibers and increased lung compliance

8

smooth muscle hypertrophy, mucus plugs

Asthma--Curschmann spirals (from shed epithelium forming mucus plugs), Charcot-leyen crystals (breakdown of eosinophils in sputum)

9

permanently dilated airways, purulent sputum, recurrent infections, hemoptysis

bronchiectasis--chronic necrotzing infection of bronchi: associated with bronchial obstruction, poor ciliary motility (smoking), Kartagener's, cystic fibrosis, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis

10

Drugs that cause pulmonary fibrosis

bleomycin, busulfan, amiodarone, methotrexate

11

shipbuilding, roofing, plumbing, white calcified pleural plaques

asbestosis--not precancerous--associated with increased risk of bronchogenic carcinoma and mesothelioma

12

Asbestosis, silcosis, coal worker's pneumoconiosis affect which parts of the lung?

Asbestosis--base of lung; silicosis and coal affect upper lobes

13

golden brown fusiform rods that are dumbell shaped

asbestos (ferruginous bodies) rods

14

macrophages laden with carbon, inflammation and fibrosis

coal worker's pneumoconiosis

15

eggshell calcification of hilar lymph nodes; foundries, sandblasting, mines

Silicosis--macrophages respond to silica and release fibrogenic factors-->fibrosis; silica may impair macrophages causing increased susceptibility to TB. increased risk of bronchogenic carcinoma

16

alveolar fluid, thickened hyaline membrane

ARDS--initial damage due to release of neutrophil substances toxic to alveolar wall, activation of coagulation cascade, free radical via O2

17

Primary pulmonary HTN

inactivating mutation in BMPR2 gene which normally functions to inhibit vascular smooth muscle proliferation

18

lung cancer associated with hypertrophic osteoarthropathy

adenocarcinoma--activating kRas, EGFR, ALK mutations

19

keratin pearls and intercellular bridges

Squamous cell carcinoma: cavitation; cigarettes; hyperCalcemia (produces PTHrP)

20

Neoplasm of neuroendocrine Kulchitsky cells

Small cell (oat cell) carcinoma that may produce ACTH, ADH, Antibodies against presynaptic Ca challens (Lambert eaton syndrome); Amplification of myc oncogenes is common; small dark blue cells

21

pleomorphic giant cells

Large cell carcinoma--removed surgically

22

nests of neuroendocrine cells, chromogranin A +

Bronchial carcinoid tumor (only lung cancer not associated with smoking) occasionally has carcinoid syndrome (5HT secretion-->flushing, diarrhea, wheezing)