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USMLE Step 1 > Musculoskeletal > Flashcards

Flashcards in Musculoskeletal Deck (31):
1

Erb palsy

upper trunk (C5, C6 roots); deltoid, supraspinatus; infraspinatus; biceps brachii; waiter's tip

2

Klumpke palsy

lower trunk (C8-T1 root); intrinsic hand muscles: lumbricals, interossei, thenar, hypothenar; total claw hand

3

winged scapula

lesion of long thoracic nerve (C5,6,7) roots; serratus anterior-->cannot abduct arm above horizontal position

4

axillary nerve lesion caused by:

fractured surgical neck of humerus; anterior dislocation of humerus

5

axillary nerve lesion deficits;

flattened deltoid, loss of arm abduction at shoulder greater than 15 degrees; loss of sensation over deltoid muscle and lateral arm

6

musculocutaneous nerve lesion caused by:

upper trunk compression

7

musculocutaneous nerve deficits:

loss of forearm flexion and supination; loss of sensation over lateral forearm

8

radial nerve injury caused by:

midshaft fracture of humerus; compression of axilla (due to crutches) or saturday night palsy;

9

radial nerve deficits:

wrist drop: loss of elbow, wrist and finger extension; decreased grip strength (wrist extensors are necessary for maximal action of flexors); loss of sensation over posterior arm/forearm and dorsal hand

10

median nerve injury caused by:

supracondylar fracture of humerus (proximal lesion); carpal tunnel syndrome and wrist laceration (distal lesion)

11

median nerve injury deficit:

Ape hand and Pope blessing; loss of wrist and lateral finger flexion, thumb opposition, lumbricals of 2nd/3rd digits; loss of sensation over thenar eminence and dorsal/palmar aspects of lateral 3.5 fingers w/ proximal lesion

12

ulnar nerve injury caused by:

fracture of medial epicondyle of humerus "funny bone" (proximal lesion); fractured hook of hamate (distal lesion);

13

ulnar nerve deficit:

ulnar claw on digit extension; radial deviation of wrist upon flexion (proximal lesion); loss of sensation in hand according to ulnar distribution

14

recurrent branch of median nerve damage caused by: deficit?

superficial laceration of palm; ape hand; loss of thenar muscle group: opposition, abduction, flexion of thumb; no loss of sensation

15

ulnar claw vs pope's blessing

ulnar claw when extending fingers at rest--distal lesion of ulnar nerve; pope's blessing when making a fist--proximal median nerve lesion

16

median claw vs OK gesture

median claw when extending fingers at rest--distal median nerve; OK gesture when making a fist--proximal ulnar nerve

17

obturator nerve injury

L2-L4; decreased medial thigh sensation, decreased adduction

18

femoral nerve injury

L2-L4; decreased thigh flexion and leg extension

19

common peroneal nerve injury caused by:

L4-S2; trauma or compression of lateral aspect of leg; fibular neck fracture

20

common peroneal nerve deficit:

foot drop--inverted and plantarflexed at rest; loss of eversion/dorsiflexion; steppage gait; loss of sensation on dorsum of foot

21

Tibial nerve injury caused by:

L4-S3: knee trauma, baker cyst (proximal lesion); tarsal tunnel syndrome (distal lesion)

22

tibial nerve deficit:

inability to curl toes and loss of sensation on sole of foot; in proximal lesions (baker cyst) foot is everted at rest with loss of inversion and plantaflexion

23

superior gluteal nerve injury caused by:

L4-S1: posterior hip dislocation, polio

24

superior gluteal nerve deficit:

trendelenburg sign/gait (superior nerve innervates gluteus medius/minimus); lesion is contralateral to the side of the hip that drops; ipsilateral to extremity on which patient stands

25

inferior gluteal nerve deficit:

difficulty climbing stairs, rising from seated position, loss of hip extension (inferior nerve innervates gluteus maximus)

26

Artery/nerve running in axilla/lateral thorax:

long thoracic nerve; lateral thoracic artery

27

A/N running in surgical neck of humerus

axillary; posterior circumflex artery

28

AN running in midshaft of humerus

radial nerve; deep brachial a

29

A/N running in distal humerus/cubital fossa

median nerve; brachial artery

30

A/N running in popliteal fossa

tibial nerve; popliteal a

31

A/N running posterior to medial malleolus

tibial nerve; posterior tibial