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Flashcards in USMLE secrets Deck (34):
1

digitalis moa, tox, treatment?

tox: diarrhea, vomiting, increased PR interval, arrythmias, blurry yellow vision (cholinergic effects); stop dig, give potassium/mg/Fab fragments; lidocaine for arrhythmia

2

things causing eosinophilia?

helminths, asthma, allergic disorders, AIN, hodgkins lymphoma

3

drugs ass with AIN?

penicillins, cephalosporins, sulfonamides, NSAIDs, PPIs

4

ADPKD vs ARPKD

ARPKD presents in infancy and is always associated with liver abnormalities: hepatic cysts, congenital hepatic fibrosis/organ dysfunction

5

VHL

bilateral kidney cysts, AD, mutiple types of neoplasms and hamartomas; hemangioblastomas of CNS and retina, pheos, pancreatic tumors, renal cysts predispose to RCC

6

tuberous sclerosis

AD, multiple cysts and tumors in kidney with CNS tuber formation + skin lesions, subungual/periungual fibromas, astrocytoms, renal angiolipomas, retinal hamartomas, cardiac rhabdomyomas

7

drugs that case oto and nephrotoxicity

loop diuretics, vancomycin, cisplatin, aminoglycosides

8

struvite vs uric vs cystine stones ppt at high/low pH?

struvite ppt at High pH; uric ppt at low PH; cystine at low pH

9

which stones can be seen on xray?

calcium stones; cystine/uric acid stones are organic and cannot be seen on x-ray

10

stones in Crohn's

gall stones and kidney stones--calcium oxalate

11

CYP450 inhibitors

cimetidine, macrolides, azoles, isoniazid, sulfonamides, grapefruit juice, protease inhibitors, ciprofloxacin

12

CYP450 inducers

barbiturates, quinidine, rifampin, phenytoin, griseofulvin, carbamazepine, st john's wort, chronic alcohol use

13

treatment for Gilbert or Crigler najjar Type 2?

phenobarbital--increases UDP glucoronyltransferase activity

14

treatment for Dubin johnsons?

avoid estrogens

15

treatment for crigler najjar type 1?

phototherapy bridge to liver transplant

16

treatment for rotor syndrome?

no treatment

17

diseases that hepB makes you susceptible to?

liver disease/HCC; glomerulonephritis (Ab-Ag deposition in glomerulus); polyarteritis nodosa; HepD infection

18

HCC mets to where?

lungs, adrenals, regional lymph nodes

19

HCC paraneoplastic syndromes?

IGF-1-->constitutional hypoglycemia; EPO; PTHrP

20

substances that signal through cAMP

FLAT P + HCG: FSH, LH, ACTH, TSH, PTH, hCG, CRH, glucagon

21

substances that signal through cGMP

NO, ANP (vasodilators)

22

substances that signal through IP3 (Gq)

GnRH, GHRH, oxytocin, TRH

23

substances that signal through steroid receptors

Estrogen, testosterone, glucocorticoids, vitD, aldosteron, progesterone, T3/T4

24

substances that signal through tyrosine kinases

insulin, growth factors, GH, prolactin

25

tuberoinfundibular stalk disruption by head trauma?

all anterior pituitary hormones decreased because lose hypothalamic stimulus, except prolactin which increases because dopamine (via hypothalamus) is no longer inhibiting prolactin

26

licorice inhibits...and can cause?

inhibits 11B-HSD, enzyme converts cortisol--cortisone-->hypertension and pseudohyperaldosteronism-->metabolic alkalosis

27

POMC cleavage gives...which hormones?

ACTH and MSH in the anterior pituitary

28

neisseria meningitis-->adrenal?

Waterhouse Freidrichson: adrenal hemorrhage, septicemia, DIC, petechial rash

29

neural crest derived cells:

chromaffin cells, parafollicular thyroid cells, Schwann cells, ANS, dorsal root and celiac ganglia, melanocytes, cranial nerves, pia/arachnoid, odontoblasts, skull bones, aorticopulmonary system

30

neural crest derived tumors?

pheo and neuroblastoma, medullary thyroid (parafollicular)

31

methimazole vs PTU

both inhibit thyroperoxidase (organification) centrally, only PTU inhibits T4 to T3 conversion peripherally via inhibtion of 5-hydroiodoinase (something like that)

32

meds that can cause hypothyroidism

amiodarone and lithium

33

drugs that induce uterine contractions

alkaloids (ergonovine), triptans, synthetic prostaglandins

34

X-linked immunodeficiencies?

Missing WBCS: hyper IgM syndrome, Wiscott-Aldrich syndrome, Bruton's aggama..; chronic granulamatous disease, SCID;