Respiratory Pharmacology Flashcards Preview

USMLE Step 1 > Respiratory Pharmacology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Respiratory Pharmacology Deck (15):
1

What are some first generation histamine blockers?

Diphenhydramine, dimenhydrinate, chlorpheniramine--Tox: sedation, antimuscarinic, anti-alpha adrenergic

2

What are some second generation H1 blockers

loratadine, fexofenadine, desloratadine, cetirizine; far less sedating than 1st generation given less entry into CNS

3

loosen mucus plugs in CF patients?

N-acetylcysteine

4

Dextromethorphan

antitussive that antagonizes NMDA gluatamate receptors; codeine analog with mild opioid effect, use naloxone for overdose; mild abuse potential

5

toxicity of pseudoephedrine/phenylephrine?

alpha agonist/sympathomimetic that can cause htn, CNS stimulation/anxiety

6

use during acute asthma exacerbation

Albuterol (B2 agonist), relaxes smooth muscle

7

Long acting B2 agonists

salmeterol, formoterol--prophylaxis, adverse effects are tremor and arrhythmia

8

bronchodilator with limited use given cardiotoxicity and neurotoxicity

Theophylline, inhibits PDE--increases cAMP levels, metabolized by CYP450, blocks action of adenosine

9

Ipatropium

competitive block of muscarinic receptors preventing bronchoconstriction; also used for COPD

10

first line therapy for chronic asthma

beclomethasone, fluticasone--corticosteroids that inhibit synthesis of virtually all cytokines

11

especially good for aspirin-induced asthma

montelukast, zafirlukast--block leukotriene receptors

12

blocks conversion of arachidonic acid to leukotrienes

zileuton--5 lipoxygenase pathway inhibitor

13

anti IgE antibody

Omalizumab--binds unbound serum IgE and prevents binding to FcRI; used in allergic asthma resistant to inhaled steroids and long acting B agonists

14

methacholine

muscarinic receptor agonist--used in provocation challenge to help diagnose asthma

15

used to treat pulmonary arterial HTN

bosentan--competitively antagonizes endothelin 1 receptors, decreased pulmonary vascular resistance+