Endocrine--Pharmacology Flashcards Preview

USMLE Step 1 > Endocrine--Pharmacology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Endocrine--Pharmacology Deck (22):
1

rapid acting insulins:

lispro, aspart, glulisine

2

insulin, intermediate acting

NPH

3

insulin long acting

glargine, detemir

4

metformin moa

decreases gluconeogenesis, increases glycolysis, increases peripheral glucose uptake--increasing insulin sensitivity;

5

metformin contraindication

lactic acidosis; renal failure

6

sulfonylureas:

1st generation: tolbutamide, chlorpropamide, 2nd generation: glyburide, glimepiride, glipizide

7

sulfonyurea moa:

close K channel in B cell membrane so cell depolarizes-->triggers insulin release via increase Ca2+ influx

8

sulfonylurea tox?

disulfiram like effects w/ first generation; hypoglycemia in 2nd generation

9

pioglitazone/rosiglitazone moa?

increases insulin sensitivty in peripheral tissue; binds to PPAR-gamma nuclear transcription regulator

10

-glitazone tox?

weight gain, edema, liver tox, exacerbate existing heart failure

11

alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, moa?

acarbose, miglitol; inhibit intestinal brush border alpha-glucosidases-->delayed sugar hydrolysis and glucose absorption-->decrease postprandial hyperglycemia

12

amylin analogs: moa?

pramlintide; decrease gastric empting-->decrease glucagon secretion;

13

GLP-1 analogs; moa?

exenatide, liraglutide; increase insulin, decrease glucagon release

14

risk of GLP1-analogs?

pancreatitis

15

DPP4-inhibitors; moa?

-gliptins; inhibit DPP4 (the enzyme that degrades GLP-1);

16

DPP4 inhibitor tox?

mild urinary/respiratory infections

17

PTU, methimazole moa?

block thyroid peroxidase-->inhibits oxidation of iodide and organification (coupling) of iodine-->inhibition of thyroid hormone synthesis. PTU also blocks 5'-deiodinase which decreases peripheral conversion of T4 to T3

18

PTU, methimazole use?

hyperthyroidism, PTU can be used in pregnancy

19

PTU, methimazole tox?

skin rash, agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia, hepatotoxicity with PTU; methimazole is possible teratogen (aplasia cutis)

20

somatostatin (octreotide) use?

acromegaly, carcinoid, gastrinoma, glucagonoma, esophageal varices

21

oxytocin use?

stimulates labor, uterine contractions, milk-let down, controls uterine hemorrhage

22

Demeclocycline moa? tox?

ADH antagonist used in SIADH; can cause nephrogenic DI, photosensitivity, abnormalities of bone and teeth