Flashcards in Endocrine--Pharmacology Deck (22):
rapid acting insulins:
lispro, aspart, glulisine
insulin, intermediate acting
insulin long acting
decreases gluconeogenesis, increases glycolysis, increases peripheral glucose uptake--increasing insulin sensitivity;
lactic acidosis; renal failure
1st generation: tolbutamide, chlorpropamide, 2nd generation: glyburide, glimepiride, glipizide
close K channel in B cell membrane so cell depolarizes-->triggers insulin release via increase Ca2+ influx
disulfiram like effects w/ first generation; hypoglycemia in 2nd generation
increases insulin sensitivty in peripheral tissue; binds to PPAR-gamma nuclear transcription regulator
weight gain, edema, liver tox, exacerbate existing heart failure
alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, moa?
acarbose, miglitol; inhibit intestinal brush border alpha-glucosidases-->delayed sugar hydrolysis and glucose absorption-->decrease postprandial hyperglycemia
amylin analogs: moa?
pramlintide; decrease gastric empting-->decrease glucagon secretion;
GLP-1 analogs; moa?
exenatide, liraglutide; increase insulin, decrease glucagon release
risk of GLP1-analogs?
-gliptins; inhibit DPP4 (the enzyme that degrades GLP-1);
DPP4 inhibitor tox?
mild urinary/respiratory infections
PTU, methimazole moa?
block thyroid peroxidase-->inhibits oxidation of iodide and organification (coupling) of iodine-->inhibition of thyroid hormone synthesis. PTU also blocks 5'-deiodinase which decreases peripheral conversion of T4 to T3
PTU, methimazole use?
hyperthyroidism, PTU can be used in pregnancy
PTU, methimazole tox?
skin rash, agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia, hepatotoxicity with PTU; methimazole is possible teratogen (aplasia cutis)
somatostatin (octreotide) use?
acromegaly, carcinoid, gastrinoma, glucagonoma, esophageal varices
stimulates labor, uterine contractions, milk-let down, controls uterine hemorrhage