CLPS 0010 Readings - Chapter 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in CLPS 0010 Readings - Chapter 1 Deck (31):
1

What is psychological science?

The study of the mind, brain and behavior

2

What is the "automaticity of everyday life?"

The unconscious influences on our behavior that occur automatically without effort or intent

3

What is critical thinking?

Systematically evaluating information to reach reasonable conclusions

4

What is one of the hallmarks of a good scientist?

Amiable skepticism: combines openness and wariness

5

What psychology originate as?

Philosophy, with Confucius who emphasized schools of thought

6

What are two two-sided debates in psychology?

Nature/nurture and mind/body

7

What is dualism?

Developed by Descartes; the idea that the mind and the body are separate yet intertwined; many mental functions result from body functions, but deliberate action is controlled by the rational mind

8

Who suggested that psychology should become science rather that philosophy?

John Stuart Mill, in 1843

9

Who established the first psych lab and institute?

Wilhelm Wundt in 1879

10

Why did Wundt start using reaction times?

To see how long it took for a psychological process to occur: used the difference in the two times

11

Who developed introspection?

Wundt

12

Who developed structuralism?

Titchener

13

What is structuralism?

The idea that conscious experience can be broken into basic underlying components

14

Who developed functionalism?

William James

15

What is functionalism?

The idea that the mind came into existence throughout evolution and is useful for preserving life and passing genes along

16

Who came up with the idea of stream of consciousness?

William James

17

Who developed evolutionary theory?

Charles Darwin

18

Who tested functionalist theories in classrooms? How?

John Dewey: emphasized divergent thinking and creativity rather than drilling; taught according to how the mind processes information

19

Who developed Gestalt theory?

Wertheimer and Kohler

20

What is the Gestalt theory?

The idea that the whole of personal experience is not the sum of its parts

21

What does the Gestalt school achieve that the structuralism doesn't?

It takes into account subjectivity and viewer-dependent influences

22

Name two important women in psychological history.

Mary Calkin and Margaret Washburn (first and second women presidents of the APA)

23

What are some contributions of Freud's?

Unconscious influences on behavior, psychoanalysis, free association

24

Who developed behaviorism?

John B Watson and John. F Skinner

25

What is behaviorism?

The approach that emphasizes observable environmental effects on behavior

26

What question is central to Watson/behaviorism?

Nature vs nurture: strongly favored nurture

27

Who launched the "cognitive revolution?"

Miller and Neisser

28

What is cognitive psychology?

Concerned with mental functions like intelligence, thinking, language, memory, and decision making.

29

Who developed social psychology?

Allport, Asch, and Lewin

30

Name three biological influences on psychology.

Brain chemistry, neuroscience, and genetics

31

What do we learn cultural rules as?

Norms