Flashcards in CLPS 0010 Readings - Chapter 1 Deck (31):
What is psychological science?
The study of the mind, brain and behavior
What is the "automaticity of everyday life?"
The unconscious influences on our behavior that occur automatically without effort or intent
What is critical thinking?
Systematically evaluating information to reach reasonable conclusions
What is one of the hallmarks of a good scientist?
Amiable skepticism: combines openness and wariness
What psychology originate as?
Philosophy, with Confucius who emphasized schools of thought
What are two two-sided debates in psychology?
Nature/nurture and mind/body
What is dualism?
Developed by Descartes; the idea that the mind and the body are separate yet intertwined; many mental functions result from body functions, but deliberate action is controlled by the rational mind
Who suggested that psychology should become science rather that philosophy?
John Stuart Mill, in 1843
Who established the first psych lab and institute?
Wilhelm Wundt in 1879
Why did Wundt start using reaction times?
To see how long it took for a psychological process to occur: used the difference in the two times
Who developed introspection?
Who developed structuralism?
What is structuralism?
The idea that conscious experience can be broken into basic underlying components
Who developed functionalism?
What is functionalism?
The idea that the mind came into existence throughout evolution and is useful for preserving life and passing genes along
Who came up with the idea of stream of consciousness?
Who developed evolutionary theory?
Who tested functionalist theories in classrooms? How?
John Dewey: emphasized divergent thinking and creativity rather than drilling; taught according to how the mind processes information
Who developed Gestalt theory?
Wertheimer and Kohler
What is the Gestalt theory?
The idea that the whole of personal experience is not the sum of its parts
What does the Gestalt school achieve that the structuralism doesn't?
It takes into account subjectivity and viewer-dependent influences
Name two important women in psychological history.
Mary Calkin and Margaret Washburn (first and second women presidents of the APA)
What are some contributions of Freud's?
Unconscious influences on behavior, psychoanalysis, free association
Who developed behaviorism?
John B Watson and John. F Skinner
What is behaviorism?
The approach that emphasizes observable environmental effects on behavior
What question is central to Watson/behaviorism?
Nature vs nurture: strongly favored nurture
Who launched the "cognitive revolution?"
Miller and Neisser
What is cognitive psychology?
Concerned with mental functions like intelligence, thinking, language, memory, and decision making.
Who developed social psychology?
Allport, Asch, and Lewin
Name three biological influences on psychology.
Brain chemistry, neuroscience, and genetics