Flashcards in CLPS 0010 Readings - Chapter 3 Deck (85):
What is the term for sensory nerves that provide information from the skin and muscles?
What are terminal buttons?
Small nodules at the end of axons that release chemical signals from the neuron into the synapse
What function do the ion channels in the nodes of Ranvier serve?
Allow ions to pass in and out to transmit signals down the axon
What is neural firing?
The action potential!
What are the three major events that terminate the neurotransmitter's influence in the synaptic cleft?
Reuptake enzyme deactivation, and autoreception
What is enzyme deactivation?
When an enzyme destroys the neurotransmitter in the synaptic cleft
What is autoreception?
When autoreceptors signal the presynaptic neuron to stop releasing the neurotransmitter if there's an excess
Effects of a neurotransmitter are a function of what?
The receptor, not the chemical itself
What are agonists vs antagonists?
Enhance vs inhibit actions of neurotransmitters
What is acetylcholine for?
Motor control over muscles, learning, emmory, sleeping, and dreaming
What is epinephrine for?
What is norepinephrine for?
Arousal and vigilance
What is serotonin for?
Emotional states and impulsiveness, dreaming
What is dopamine for?
Reward and motivation, motor control over voluntary movement
What is GABA for?
Gamma-aminobutyric acid; inhibition of action potentials, anxiety reduction, intoxication through alcohol
What is glutamate for?
Enhancement of action potentials, learning and memory
What are endorphins for?
Pain reduction, reward
What is substance P for?
Pain perception, mood, and anxiety
How does Ach affect skeletal and heart muscles?
Excites skeletal muscles, inhibits heart muscles
Alzheimer's disease is associated with diminished functioning of what neurotransmitter?
What are the four monoamines?
Epinephrine, norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine
What are the major functions of monoamines?
To regulate arousal, regulate feelings, and motivate behavior
Depletion of what neurotransmitter is associated with Parkinson's disease?
Dopamine, since it's important for motor control
What is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the nervous system?
Low levels of what neurotransmitter may be responsible for epileptic seizures?
GABA agonists are often used to treat what?
Anxiety disorders, like benzodiazepines or ethyl alcohol
What is the primary excitatory transmitter in the nervous system?
What does endorphin stand for?
Endogenous morphine :) cool fact!
What neurotransmitter is responsible for motor control over muscles, learning, memory, sleeping, and dreaming?
What neurotransmitter is responsible for energy?
What neurotransmitter is responsible for arousal and vigilance?
What neurotransmitter is responsible for emotional states and impulsiveness, and dreaming?
What neurotransmitter is responsible for reward and motivation, memory control over voluntary movement?
What neurotransmitter is responsible for inhibition of action potentials, anxiety reduction, intoxication through alcohol?
What neurotransmitter is responsible for enhancement of action potentials, learning and memory?
What neurotransmitter is responsible for pain reduction and reward?
What neurotransmitter is responsible for pain perception, mood and anxiety?
What scientist gave the first strong evidence that brain regions perform specialized function?
Broca, when he performed an autopsy on his patient and found damage in the left frontal lobe and connected it to the patient's speech impairments
Where is Broca's area?
In the left frontal region
What is the difference between gray and white matter?
Gray matter is composed of mostly neuron cell bodies, but white matter I mostly axons and fatty sheaths
What is the brain stem?
An extension of the spinal cord; houses structures that control functions associated with survival such as breathing, swallowing, vomiting, urination, and orgasm
What is the cerebellum?
A large convoluted protuberance at the back of the brain stem, essential for coordinated movement and balance
What are the three parts of the brain stem, from top to bottom?
Midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata
What is the reticular formation?
A network of neurons in the brain stem, which projects up into the cerebral cortex and affects general alertness, involved in inducing and terminating the different stages of sleep
What area is responsible for general alertness and inducing/terminating different sleep stages?
What happens with damage to the bottom of the cerebellum?
Head tilt, balance problems, and loss of smoother compensation of eye position for head movement
What happens with damage to the ridge up the back of the cerebellum?
Impaired walking ability
What happens with damage to the bulging loves on the either side of the cerebellum?
Loss of limb coordination
What is the interesting thing about the cerebellum in relation to the rest of the brain?
Seems to be trained by the rest of the nervous system and operates independently and unconsciously
What is the forebrain?
Consists of the two cerebral hemispheres of the cerebral cortex
What are some subcortical structures?
Hypothalamus, thalamus, hippocampus, amygdala, and basal ganglia
What is the limbic system important for?
Controlling appetitive behaviors, like eating and drinking, and emotions
What is the hypothalamus?
Master regulatory structure: functions of internal organs, regulates body temperature, body rhythms, blood pressure, blood glucose levels; motivated behaviors like thirst, hunger, aggression, and lust
What brain structure is the master regulatory structure of the brain and regulates internal organ functioning, body temperature, body rhythms, blood pressure, blood glucose levels, and motivated behaviors?
Where is the hypothalamus located?
Right above the roof of the mouth
What is the thalamus?
Gateway to the cortex: receives and relays all sensory information to the cortex (except smell!); helps shut the gate to incoming sensations during sleep
What brain structure is the gateway to the cortex and relays all sensory info (except smell) to the cortex?
What sense is relayed to the cortex directly instead of being mediated by the thalamus?
Olfactory/sense of smell
What is the hippocampus?
Storage of new memories by creating new interconnections within the cerebral cortex with each new experience
What is the amygdala?
Learning to associate things in the world with emotional responses; enables us to overcome instinctive responses; intensifies function of memory during emotional arousal; evaluating facial expressions, sexual arousal; responses to fear
What brain structure is responsible for associations with emotional responses, memory function during arousal, facial expressions, fear, and arousal?
What is the basal ganglia?
Planning and producing movement, learning movement and habits; contains the nucleus accumbens for reward and motivation
What brain structure if responsible for planning and producing movement?
What is the nucleus accumbens?
In the basal ganglia, responsible for reward and motivation
What brain structure is responsible for reward and motivation?
Nucleus accumbens in the basal ganglia
What is the cerebral cortex?
The outer layer of the cerebral hemispheres that gives the brain its distinctive wrinkled appearance
What are the four lobes of the cerebral cortex?
Occipital, frontal, temporal, and parietal
What is the occipital lobe?
Back of the head, for vision; contains primary visual cortex
Where is the primary visual cortex?
In the occipital lobe
What is the parietal lobe?
Devoted to touch, info relayed to primary somatosensory cortex
What is the somatosensory homunculus?
HAL! The distorted representation of the body in the somatosensory cortex in the parietal lobe
What is hemineglect?
When damage to the right parietal region causes patients to fail to notice anything on their left sides
What is the temporal lobe?
Contains the primary auditory cortex (for hearing); contains some specialized visual areas for detail (blends with the occipital lobe for fusiform face gyrus)
What is the frontal lobe?
Essential for planning and movement; includes primary motor cortex; contains prefrontal cortex for directing and maintaining attention
What is the prefrontal cortex?
Part of the frontal lobes, responsible for directing and maintaining attention, sense of self, ability to empathize, contemplating our existence
What is the pineal gland for?
What is the hypothalamus for?
Controls motivation and regulates body functions
What is the pituitary gland for?
Release of hormones
What is the thyroid for?
Controls how body burns energy
What is the parathyroid for?
Maintains calcium levels
What is the thymus for?
Governs immune system
What is the adrenal gland for?
Governs immune system
What is the pancreas for?
What are the ovaries and testes for?