CLPS 0010 Readings - Chapter 3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in CLPS 0010 Readings - Chapter 3 Deck (85):
1

What is the term for sensory nerves that provide information from the skin and muscles?

Somatosensory nerves

2

What are terminal buttons?

Small nodules at the end of axons that release chemical signals from the neuron into the synapse

3

What function do the ion channels in the nodes of Ranvier serve?

Allow ions to pass in and out to transmit signals down the axon

4

What is neural firing?

The action potential!

5

What are the three major events that terminate the neurotransmitter's influence in the synaptic cleft?

Reuptake enzyme deactivation, and autoreception

6

What is enzyme deactivation?

When an enzyme destroys the neurotransmitter in the synaptic cleft

7

What is autoreception?

When autoreceptors signal the presynaptic neuron to stop releasing the neurotransmitter if there's an excess

8

Effects of a neurotransmitter are a function of what?

The receptor, not the chemical itself

9

What are agonists vs antagonists?

Enhance vs inhibit actions of neurotransmitters

10

What is acetylcholine for?

Motor control over muscles, learning, emmory, sleeping, and dreaming

11

What is epinephrine for?

Energy

12

What is norepinephrine for?

Arousal and vigilance

13

What is serotonin for?

Emotional states and impulsiveness, dreaming

14

What is dopamine for?

Reward and motivation, motor control over voluntary movement

15

What is GABA for?

Gamma-aminobutyric acid; inhibition of action potentials, anxiety reduction, intoxication through alcohol

16

What is glutamate for?

Enhancement of action potentials, learning and memory

17

What are endorphins for?

Pain reduction, reward

18

What is substance P for?

Pain perception, mood, and anxiety

19

How does Ach affect skeletal and heart muscles?

Excites skeletal muscles, inhibits heart muscles

20

Alzheimer's disease is associated with diminished functioning of what neurotransmitter?

Acetylcholine

21

What are the four monoamines?

Epinephrine, norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine

22

What are the major functions of monoamines?

To regulate arousal, regulate feelings, and motivate behavior

23

Depletion of what neurotransmitter is associated with Parkinson's disease?

Dopamine, since it's important for motor control

24

What is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the nervous system?

GABA

25

Low levels of what neurotransmitter may be responsible for epileptic seizures?

GABA

26

GABA agonists are often used to treat what?

Anxiety disorders, like benzodiazepines or ethyl alcohol

27

What is the primary excitatory transmitter in the nervous system?

Glutamate

28

What does endorphin stand for?

Endogenous morphine :) cool fact!

29

What neurotransmitter is responsible for motor control over muscles, learning, memory, sleeping, and dreaming?

Acetylcholine

30

What neurotransmitter is responsible for energy?

Epinephrine

31

What neurotransmitter is responsible for arousal and vigilance?

Norepinephrine

32

What neurotransmitter is responsible for emotional states and impulsiveness, and dreaming?

Serotonin

33

What neurotransmitter is responsible for reward and motivation, memory control over voluntary movement?

Dopamine

34

What neurotransmitter is responsible for inhibition of action potentials, anxiety reduction, intoxication through alcohol?

GABA

35

What neurotransmitter is responsible for enhancement of action potentials, learning and memory?

Glutamate

36

What neurotransmitter is responsible for pain reduction and reward?

Endorphins

37

What neurotransmitter is responsible for pain perception, mood and anxiety?

Substance P

38

What scientist gave the first strong evidence that brain regions perform specialized function?

Broca, when he performed an autopsy on his patient and found damage in the left frontal lobe and connected it to the patient's speech impairments

39

Where is Broca's area?

In the left frontal region

40

What is the difference between gray and white matter?

Gray matter is composed of mostly neuron cell bodies, but white matter I mostly axons and fatty sheaths

41

What is the brain stem?

An extension of the spinal cord; houses structures that control functions associated with survival such as breathing, swallowing, vomiting, urination, and orgasm

42

What is the cerebellum?

A large convoluted protuberance at the back of the brain stem, essential for coordinated movement and balance

43

What are the three parts of the brain stem, from top to bottom?

Midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata

44

What is the reticular formation?

A network of neurons in the brain stem, which projects up into the cerebral cortex and affects general alertness, involved in inducing and terminating the different stages of sleep

45

What area is responsible for general alertness and inducing/terminating different sleep stages?

Reticular formation

46

What happens with damage to the bottom of the cerebellum?

Head tilt, balance problems, and loss of smoother compensation of eye position for head movement

47

What happens with damage to the ridge up the back of the cerebellum?

Impaired walking ability

48

What happens with damage to the bulging loves on the either side of the cerebellum?

Loss of limb coordination

49

What is the interesting thing about the cerebellum in relation to the rest of the brain?

Seems to be trained by the rest of the nervous system and operates independently and unconsciously

50

What is the forebrain?

Consists of the two cerebral hemispheres of the cerebral cortex

51

What are some subcortical structures?

Hypothalamus, thalamus, hippocampus, amygdala, and basal ganglia

52

What is the limbic system important for?

Controlling appetitive behaviors, like eating and drinking, and emotions

53

What is the hypothalamus?

Master regulatory structure: functions of internal organs, regulates body temperature, body rhythms, blood pressure, blood glucose levels; motivated behaviors like thirst, hunger, aggression, and lust

54

What brain structure is the master regulatory structure of the brain and regulates internal organ functioning, body temperature, body rhythms, blood pressure, blood glucose levels, and motivated behaviors?

Hypothalamus

55

Where is the hypothalamus located?

Right above the roof of the mouth

56

What is the thalamus?

Gateway to the cortex: receives and relays all sensory information to the cortex (except smell!); helps shut the gate to incoming sensations during sleep

57

What brain structure is the gateway to the cortex and relays all sensory info (except smell) to the cortex?

The thalamus

58

What sense is relayed to the cortex directly instead of being mediated by the thalamus?

Olfactory/sense of smell

59

What is the hippocampus?

Storage of new memories by creating new interconnections within the cerebral cortex with each new experience

60

What is the amygdala?

Learning to associate things in the world with emotional responses; enables us to overcome instinctive responses; intensifies function of memory during emotional arousal; evaluating facial expressions, sexual arousal; responses to fear

61

What brain structure is responsible for associations with emotional responses, memory function during arousal, facial expressions, fear, and arousal?

Amygdala

62

What is the basal ganglia?

Planning and producing movement, learning movement and habits; contains the nucleus accumbens for reward and motivation

63

What brain structure if responsible for planning and producing movement?

Basal ganglia

64

What is the nucleus accumbens?

In the basal ganglia, responsible for reward and motivation

65

What brain structure is responsible for reward and motivation?

Nucleus accumbens in the basal ganglia

66

What is the cerebral cortex?

The outer layer of the cerebral hemispheres that gives the brain its distinctive wrinkled appearance

67

What are the four lobes of the cerebral cortex?

Occipital, frontal, temporal, and parietal

68

What is the occipital lobe?

Back of the head, for vision; contains primary visual cortex

69

Where is the primary visual cortex?

In the occipital lobe

70

What is the parietal lobe?

Devoted to touch, info relayed to primary somatosensory cortex

71

What is the somatosensory homunculus?

HAL! The distorted representation of the body in the somatosensory cortex in the parietal lobe

72

What is hemineglect?

When damage to the right parietal region causes patients to fail to notice anything on their left sides

73

What is the temporal lobe?

Contains the primary auditory cortex (for hearing); contains some specialized visual areas for detail (blends with the occipital lobe for fusiform face gyrus)

74

What is the frontal lobe?

Essential for planning and movement; includes primary motor cortex; contains prefrontal cortex for directing and maintaining attention

75

What is the prefrontal cortex?

Part of the frontal lobes, responsible for directing and maintaining attention, sense of self, ability to empathize, contemplating our existence

76

What is the pineal gland for?

Bodily rhythms

77

What is the hypothalamus for?

Controls motivation and regulates body functions

78

What is the pituitary gland for?

Release of hormones

79

What is the thyroid for?

Controls how body burns energy

80

What is the parathyroid for?

Maintains calcium levels

81

What is the thymus for?

Governs immune system

82

What is the adrenal gland for?

Governs immune system

83

What is the pancreas for?

Controls digestion

84

What are the ovaries and testes for?

Influences reproduction

85

What role does protein play in growth hormone release?

Growth hormone releasing factor stimulates the release of GH, which relies on protein to build muscles/bones and also increases appetite for protein; released from pituitary gland