Flashcards in CLPS 0010 Readings - Chapter 2 Deck (54):
What does it mean to use operational definitions?
To define variable by quantifying them so that they can be measured
What are descriptive studies?
Research method that involves observing and noting the behavior of people or other animals to provide a systematic and objective analysis of the behavior
What is a naturalistic observation?
A type of descriptive study in which the researcher is a passive observer, making no attempt to change or alter ongoing behavior
What is a participant observation?
A type of descriptive study in which the researcher is actively involved in the situation
What are the two types of descriptive studies?
Naturalistic observation and participant observation
What are some problems with participant observation?
Might lose objectivity, might change behaviors if know you're being observed
What are cross-sectional studies?
Research method that compares participants in different groups at the same time
What is observer bias?
Systematic errors in observation that occur because eof an observer's expectations
What is the cohort effect?
The potential difference in groups of a cross-sectional study that are due to some external third variable
What is the experimenter expectancy effect?
Actual change in the behavior of the people or nonhuman animals being observed that is due to the expectations of the observer
What are correlational studies?
Research method that examines how variable are naturally related in the real world without any attempt by the researcher to alter them or assign causation between them
What is the disadvantage of a correlational study?
Can't be used to support causal relationships or show the direction of the cause/effect relationship between variables or identify third variable confound
What is the directionality problem?
The problem encountered in correlational studies where you can't determine which variable may have caused changed in the other
What is the third variable problem?
A problem when the researcher cannot directly manipulate the variables; this they can't be confident that there's not a confounding third variable at play
What kind of situations in experiments often lead to a lack of external validity?
Overly artificial situations
What is culturally sensitive research?
Research that takes into account the role that culture plays in determining thoughts, feelings, and actions
What are observational techniques?
A research method of careful and systematic assessment and coding of overt behavior
What is coding?
Determining what previously defined category the behavior fits into
What is reactivity?
When the knowledge that one is being observed alters the behavior being observed
What is the Hawthorne effect?
Reactivity (workers at the Hawthorne plant)
What are the advantages and disadvantages of case studies?
Can provide extensive data about one or a few individuals/organizations, but can be very subjective and can't be generalized to the population
What are the advantages and disadvantages to interactive methods?
Can gather lots of data like through self-report methods, inexpensive, easy to give, fast, can explore new lines of questioning; BUT can include self-report bias, social desirability bias, or incorrect information recall
What is experience sampling?
When researchers take several samples of the participants' experiences over time and determine how the responses vary over time
What is the better-than-average effect?
When people tend to describe themselves in especially positive ways because they believe things about themselves that aren't necessarily true
What is the response performance method?
A research method in which researchers quantify perceptual of cognitive processes in response to a specific stimulus; uses reaction times and response accuracy
What are advantages/disadvantages of the response performance method?
It's easy to study cognition/perception, less affected by observer bias or subject reactivity; BUT it’s costly and time-consuming and less likely to be useful in real world settings
Why are reaction times particularly good as dependent measures?
You can't fake them.
What else, in addition to reaction time, can be measure in response performance studies?
What are stimulus judgments?
Judging whether the two stimuli are the same or different in some way, like size, color, shape, etc.
What are some examples of psychophysiological assessment?
When researchers examine how physiology changes in association with psychology; EEG, CAT, PET, MRI, fMRI, etc.
What is electrophysiology?
A data collection method that measure electircal activity in the brain using electrodes; measured by an EEG
What are the advantages/disadvantages of body/brain activity methods?
Identify physical responses to external events: changes in bodily activity (polygraphs), electrical brain activity (EEG), localizing brain activity (PET, fMRI, TMS) or brain structure (MRI); BUT deemphasize brain localization, are better for speed of response but not activity, or vice versa, and are correlational and have the third variable problem and directionality problem
What is brain imaging?
Measures changes in the rate of blood flow to different brain regions to monitor which regions are active during tasks/events
What is PET for?
Computer-aided reconstruction of the brain's metabolic activity; requires injection of radioactive substance
What is MRI for?
Producing a high-res image of the brain, brain structure, location of brain damage or tumors
What is fMRI for?
Uses blood flow to map the working brain, measures blood oxygen level, allows comparison of images to examine difference in blood flow and brain activity
What is TMS for?
Uses magnetic coils to disrupt the electrical signals of specific brain areas, like over the language area to impair speech; can only be used for short durations; very useful for examining which brain regions are necessary for specific psychological functions
What are transgenic mice?
Mice produced by manipulating the genes in developing mouse embryos by inserting foreign DNA into the genes
What are four main issues evaluated and regulated by the IRBs?
Privacy, access to data, informed consent, and relative risks of participation
Describe the ethical issues surrounding privacy.
Observing people without them knowing it; what topics are too personal or inappropriate; how the studies will affect the participants' sense of privacy
Describe the ethical issues surrounding access to data.
Keeping things confidential; keeping the data quality and accurate; promising anonymity if the data can't be confidential
Describe the ethical issues surrounding informed consent.
Respect and trust for participants; voluntary knowledgeable decision to participate; special considerations for minors/mentally ill regarding legal guardians; using deception only when other methods aren't appropriate and when deception doesn't involve situations that would strongly affect people's willingness to participate; careful debriefing after the deception
Describe the ethical issues surrounding relative risks of participation.
No enduring pain or discomfort; appropriate trade-off between risks and benefits if necessary
What is internal validity?
Whether the data you collect address your question
What is reliability?
The extent to which a measure is stable and consistent over time in similar conditions
What are the three characteristics of good data?
Validity, reliability, and accuracy
What is accuracy?
The extent to which the measure is error free
What are descriptive statistics?
Stats that summarize the data collected in a study
What is central tendency?
A measure that represents the typical response of the behaviors of a group as a whole
Which kind of error is more harmful, systematic or random?
Systematic, because usually random will average out eventually
What are the elements of descriptive statistics?
Mean, median, mode, variability, standard deviation, range
What is the variability?
How widely dispersed the values in a set of numbers are from each other and from the mean
What are inferential statistics?
A set of procedures used to make judgments about whether difference actually exist between sets of numbers