Flashcards in CLPS 0010 Readings - Chapter 5 Deck (39):
What is consciousness?
One's subjective experience of the world, resulting from brain activity
Do most scientists agree or disagree with dualism?
Disagree: believe mind and brain are inseparable
What are the three absolutely vital functions of consciousness?
To perform complex actions that require input from different brain regions; to connect with one another by sharing thoughts and feelings; for complicated thinking
What is a persistent vegetative state?
When someone is in a coma but with sleep and wake cycles for longer than a month
What is a minimally conscious state?
The state between vegetative and fully conscious: some deliberate movements or communication; better prognosis
What is the global workspace model?
That consciousness arises as a function of which brain circuits are active
What is split brain?
A condition in which the corpus callosum is surgically cut and the two hemispheres of the brain don't receive info directly from each other
Which hemisphere is language dominant?
Which hemisphere is spatial dominant?
What does the term interpreter mean?
Refers to left hemisphere; refers to its attempts to make sense of actions and ongoing events
Which hemisphere tends to look for patterns?
Left hemisphere, the interpreter
When is unconscious thought most beneficial, for complex or simple decisions?
Better for complex decisions in which it's difficult to weight pros and cons consciously
What is the suprachiasmatic nucleus?
The small region of the hypothalamus that receives information about light signals for maintaining circadian rhythms
How does light affect the pineal gland and circadian rhythms?
Less light, detected by the eyes and sent to the suprachiasmatic nucleus in the hypothalamus, triggers the pineal gland to secret more melatonin, which is a hormone that controls circadian rhythms
What is the brain pattern for sleep/drowsiness?
Alpha waves, which are slower and more regular that beta waves
What is Stage 1 of sleep?
What is Stage 2 of sleep?
Sleep spindles and K complexes
What are Stages 3 and 4 of sleep?
What is REM?
Rapid eye movement stage of sleep, back to beta waves
What brain areas are more active during REM sleep?
In occipital cortex and brainstem
What happens to most of the body's muscles during REM sleep?
Paralyzed, except for genital arousal (wtf?)
What is obstructive sleep apnea?
A disorder in which a person, while asleep, stops breathing because his or her throat closes: frequent awakenings during the night
What is pseudoinsomnia?
When you dream that you're not sleeping
What is REM behavior disorder?
There is no normal paralysis accompanying REM sleep, so sleepers flail; caused by a neurological deficit; most common in elderly males
What are the three general explanations for sleep's adaptiveness?
Restoration, circadian rhythms, and facilitation of learning
What is the restorative theory of sleep?
Sleep allows the body and brain to repair itself
What is the circadian rhythm theory of sleep?
That sleep evolved to keep animals quiet and inactive during times of the day when there is greatest danger, usually during darkness
What is the facilitation of learning theory of sleep?
The sleep is important for strengthening neural connections that serve as the basis of learning
What is the general difference between REM and non-REM dreams?
REM dreams are bizarre and often involve intense emotions, visual and auditory hallucinations, and an uncritical acceptance of illogical events; non-REM dreams are usually pretty dull
What brain areas are involved in REM dreaming?
Motor cortex, visual association area, brain stem, amygdala, but NOT the prefrontal cortex
What is the manifest content of dreams?
The plot of a dream, the way it's remembered (according to Freud)
What is the latent content of dreams?
According to Freud, what a dream symbolizes, the material that is disguised in a dream to protect the dreamer from confronting a conflict directly
What is the activation-synthesis theory?
A theory of dreaming that proposes that the brain tries to make sense of random brain activity that occurs during sleep by synthesizing the activity with stored memories
What is the evolved threat-rehearsal theory?
That dreams simulate threatening events so that people can rehearse strategies for coping
What are three ways of potentially reaching altered states on consciousness?
Hypnosis, mediation, and immersion in an action
What is the socio-cognitive theory of hypnosis?
That hypnotized people behave as they expect hypnotized people to behave, even if they have faulty expectations
What is the dissociation theory of hypnosis?
Views hypnotic state as altered consciousness, but as a trancelike state in which conscious awareness is dissociated from other aspects of consciousness
What is hypnotic analgesia?
Using hypnosis for pain reduction