Flashcards in CLPS 0010 Readings - Chapter 11 Deck (41):
What is health psychology?
The area of study that integrates research on health and on psychology
Why was the health psychology movement launched?
Because psychologists and health professionals realized the importance of lifestyle factors to physical health
What do health psychologists depend on?
Research methods of psychology to understand the relationship between thoughts, actions, and physical and mental health
What is the biopsychosocial model?
OUTDATED! But no: it views health/illness as the product of a combination of factors including biological characteristics, behavioral factors, and social conditions
What is the most likely reason people die?
Due to causes that stem from their own behaviors; or accidents that we can't control
What is regression to the mean?
When a more extreme event tends to be followed by an event closer to the average or mean; happens pretty much a lot.
What is the most powerful placebo?
One that has symptoms of its own that can be misattributed to its success
What is the HPA axis?
Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis; biological system responsible for stress response
What hormones does the pituitary gland release when the brain perceives a stressor?
ACTH: adrenocorticotropic hormone
Where does the pituitary gland secrete ACTH to after the brain detects a stress response?
The adrenal gland
What happens after ACTH activates the adrenal glands during the stress response?
The adrenal glands release cortisol, which increases blood glucose levels; they also release epinephrine and norepinephrine to activate the sympathetic nervous system
What is the order of events in the HPA axis?
Brain detects stressor, hypothalamus sends message to pituitary gland, which releases ACTH to the adrenal glands, which release cortisol (increases blood glucose) and norepinephrine and epinephrine, which initiate the sympathetic nervous system
What particular cognitive function does stress particularly impair?
Memory: worse memory under stress
What is the female counter to fight-or-flight?
Tend and befriend
What is the tend and befriend response?
the female response to stress by protecting and caring for their offspring as well as forming alliances with social groups to reduce risk to individuals, including themselves
What is oxytocin?
A hormone important for mothers in bonding to newborns and may encourage affiliation during social stress
What is the current biological basis for tend-and-befriend?
Oxytocin, which is especially important in women's stress resoinse
What responses are the hallmarks of a nonspecific stress response, or the general adaptation syndrome?
Enlarged adrenal glands, damaged to the immune system resulting in decreased levels of lymphocytes, and stomach ulcers
What are the three stages of the general adaptation syndrome?
Alarm, resistance, and exhaustion
What is the alarm stage of the generalized adaptation syndrome?
The physical preparation for fight or flight; boosts physical abilities and reduces activities that make the organism vulnerable to infection after injury
What is the resistance stage of the generalized adaptation syndrome?
The defenses prepare for a longer, sustained attack against the stressor; immunity increases a bit
What is the exhaustion stage of the generalized adaptation syndrome?
A variety of physiological and immune systems fail, especially body systems that were already weak
What does psychoneuroimmunology study?
The response of the body's immune system to psychological variables
What is the reason for the detrimental effects of long term stress on physical health?
Decreased lymphocyte production (immune system damage)
What kind of chronic stress has the greatest impact on the immune system?
Stress associated with changes in social roles or identity, like losing a job, getting divorced, etc.
How does chronic stress affect the heart?
Leads to overstimulation of the sympathetic nervous system causing higher blood pressure, constriction of blood vessels, and greater buildup of plaque on arteries
What set of personality traits predicts heart deisease/
Type A behavior pattern: competitive, achievement oriented, aggressive, hostile, impatient, and time-pressed
What is Type B behavior pattern?
Noncompetitive, relaxed, easygoing, accommodating people
What is the most toxic Type A personality trait?
How do negative personality traits combine to pormote coronary heart disease?
1) Poor coping mechanisms and behavioral strategies; 2) overtax the sympathetic nervous system
What are primary appraisals?
Part of the coping process that involves making decisions about whether a stimulus is stressful, benign, or irrelevant
What are secondary appraisals?
Part of the coping process during which people evaluate their response options and choose coping behaviors
What is emotion-focused coping?
Trying to prevent an emotional response to the stressor; adopting strategies to numb the pain
What is problem-focused coping?
Involves taking direct steps to solve the problem; generating alternative solutions, weighing the costs and benefits, choosing between them
When do people often use emotion-based or problem-based coping strategies?
Emotional to continue functioning in the face on uncontrollable stressors or high stress; problem when stressors are perceived as controllable and are experiencing only moderate stress
What are downward comparisons?
Comparing oneself to those who are worse off; especially helpful for those with serious illness
What is creation of positive events?
Giving positive spin to ordinary events or stressful events
What are the three characteristics of hardiness, and what is it?
Resistance to stress because you're capable of adapting to life changes by viewing them constructively; commitment, challenge, and control
What are two factors that are likely to be able to explain the increase on obesity?
The sheer variety of high calorie foods and large portions served
What are the three components to positive psychology?
Positive emotion and pleasure; engagement in life; and a meaningful life