CLPS 0010 Readings - Chapter 11 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in CLPS 0010 Readings - Chapter 11 Deck (41):
1

What is health psychology?

The area of study that integrates research on health and on psychology

2

Why was the health psychology movement launched?

Because psychologists and health professionals realized the importance of lifestyle factors to physical health

3

What do health psychologists depend on?

Research methods of psychology to understand the relationship between thoughts, actions, and physical and mental health

4

What is the biopsychosocial model?

OUTDATED! But no: it views health/illness as the product of a combination of factors including biological characteristics, behavioral factors, and social conditions

5

What is the most likely reason people die?

Due to causes that stem from their own behaviors; or accidents that we can't control

6

What is regression to the mean?

When a more extreme event tends to be followed by an event closer to the average or mean; happens pretty much a lot.

7

What is the most powerful placebo?

One that has symptoms of its own that can be misattributed to its success

8

What is the HPA axis?

Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis; biological system responsible for stress response

9

What hormones does the pituitary gland release when the brain perceives a stressor?

ACTH: adrenocorticotropic hormone

10

Where does the pituitary gland secrete ACTH to after the brain detects a stress response?

The adrenal gland

11

What happens after ACTH activates the adrenal glands during the stress response?

The adrenal glands release cortisol, which increases blood glucose levels; they also release epinephrine and norepinephrine to activate the sympathetic nervous system

12

What is the order of events in the HPA axis?

Brain detects stressor, hypothalamus sends message to pituitary gland, which releases ACTH to the adrenal glands, which release cortisol (increases blood glucose) and norepinephrine and epinephrine, which initiate the sympathetic nervous system

13

What particular cognitive function does stress particularly impair?

Memory: worse memory under stress

14

What is the female counter to fight-or-flight?

Tend and befriend

15

What is the tend and befriend response?

the female response to stress by protecting and caring for their offspring as well as forming alliances with social groups to reduce risk to individuals, including themselves

16

What is oxytocin?

A hormone important for mothers in bonding to newborns and may encourage affiliation during social stress

17

What is the current biological basis for tend-and-befriend?

Oxytocin, which is especially important in women's stress resoinse

18

What responses are the hallmarks of a nonspecific stress response, or the general adaptation syndrome?

Enlarged adrenal glands, damaged to the immune system resulting in decreased levels of lymphocytes, and stomach ulcers

19

What are the three stages of the general adaptation syndrome?

Alarm, resistance, and exhaustion

20

What is the alarm stage of the generalized adaptation syndrome?

The physical preparation for fight or flight; boosts physical abilities and reduces activities that make the organism vulnerable to infection after injury

21

What is the resistance stage of the generalized adaptation syndrome?

The defenses prepare for a longer, sustained attack against the stressor; immunity increases a bit

22

What is the exhaustion stage of the generalized adaptation syndrome?

A variety of physiological and immune systems fail, especially body systems that were already weak

23

What does psychoneuroimmunology study?

The response of the body's immune system to psychological variables

24

What is the reason for the detrimental effects of long term stress on physical health?

Decreased lymphocyte production (immune system damage)

25

What kind of chronic stress has the greatest impact on the immune system?

Stress associated with changes in social roles or identity, like losing a job, getting divorced, etc.

26

How does chronic stress affect the heart?

Leads to overstimulation of the sympathetic nervous system causing higher blood pressure, constriction of blood vessels, and greater buildup of plaque on arteries

27

What set of personality traits predicts heart deisease/

Type A behavior pattern: competitive, achievement oriented, aggressive, hostile, impatient, and time-pressed

28

What is Type B behavior pattern?

Noncompetitive, relaxed, easygoing, accommodating people

29

What is the most toxic Type A personality trait?

Hostility

30

How do negative personality traits combine to pormote coronary heart disease?

1) Poor coping mechanisms and behavioral strategies; 2) overtax the sympathetic nervous system

31

What are primary appraisals?

Part of the coping process that involves making decisions about whether a stimulus is stressful, benign, or irrelevant

32

What are secondary appraisals?

Part of the coping process during which people evaluate their response options and choose coping behaviors

33

What is emotion-focused coping?

Trying to prevent an emotional response to the stressor; adopting strategies to numb the pain

34

What is problem-focused coping?

Involves taking direct steps to solve the problem; generating alternative solutions, weighing the costs and benefits, choosing between them

35

When do people often use emotion-based or problem-based coping strategies?

Emotional to continue functioning in the face on uncontrollable stressors or high stress; problem when stressors are perceived as controllable and are experiencing only moderate stress

36

What are downward comparisons?

Comparing oneself to those who are worse off; especially helpful for those with serious illness

37

What is creation of positive events?

Giving positive spin to ordinary events or stressful events

38

What are the three characteristics of hardiness, and what is it?

Resistance to stress because you're capable of adapting to life changes by viewing them constructively; commitment, challenge, and control

39

What are two factors that are likely to be able to explain the increase on obesity?

The sheer variety of high calorie foods and large portions served

40

What are the three components to positive psychology?

Positive emotion and pleasure; engagement in life; and a meaningful life

41

What is the buffering hypothesis?

Knowing that other people care and can provide direct emotional support can help individuals cope with stressful events