Flashcards in CLPS 0010 Readings - Chapter 8 Deck (30):
What is thinking?
I'm not quite sure. I've never done it. (the mental manipulation of representations of information in the brain)
What is cognition?
Mental activity that includes thinking and the understandings that result from thinking
What are analogical representations?
Mental representations that have some of the physical characteristics of objects; "analogous to objects"
What are symbolic representations?
Abstract mental representations that do not correspond to the physical features of objects or ideas
What are concepts?
Mental representations that group or categorize objects, events, or relations around common themes
What is the defining attribute model?
A way of thinking about concepts: when categories are characterized by a list of features that determine if an object is a member of the category
What are stereotypes?
Cognitive schemas that allow for easy fast processing of info about people based on their membership in certain groups
What is a script?
A schema that directs behavior over time within a situation
What is deductive reasoning?
Using general rules to draw conclusions about specific inferences
What is inductive reasoning?
Using specific instances to draw conclusions about general rules
What is the normative model of decision making?
That people act as optimal decision makers: always select the choice that yields the largest gain
What is the descriptive model of decision making?
We tend to misinterpret and misrepresent the probabilities underlying many decision making scenarios; irrational decisions
What is the expected utility theory?
We make decisions by considering alternatives and choosing the most desirable by ranking them inn order of preference
What is this difference between heuristics and algorithms?
Algorithms are procedures that always yield the correct answer if you follow them; Heuristics are unconscious mental shortcuts that allow us to focus on other things and may not necessarily lead to the right answer
Why are heuristics adaptive?
Allow focus of attention elsewhere; allow quick decision making without weighing all the evidence
What is framing?
The effect of presentation on how info is perceived
What is the availability heuristic?
Making a decision based on the answer that most easily comes to mind
What is the representativeness heuristic?
Placing a person of object in a category if that person of object is similar to one's prototype for that category
What is the base rate?
Information useful in the representative heuristic evaluation: how frequently an event occurs; for example, higher base rate for postal workers than cognitive psychologists, so more likely a postal worker
What is the prospect theory?
Decision making: person's wealth affects choices, and person avoids losses rather than seeks gains; Kahneman and Tversky
What is loss aversion?
Losing is worse than gaining is good
What is affective forecasting?
Predicting how you'll feel about something; we're not very good at this; often overestimate the negative impact of negative events
What is psychological reactance?
When we reacting by wanting to do exactly what is forbidden to us
What is reification?
The tendency to think about complex traits as thought that have a single cause and an objective reality
What is general intelligence "g?"
The idea that one general factor underlies intelligence; Spearman 1904
What may be the main value of g?
Ability to adapt to new situations and environmental challenges
What is fluid intelligence?
Info processing, especially in new/complex circumstances: often assessed nonverbally, more culture-fairly
What is crystallized intelligence?
Knowledge we acquire through experience like vocab and cultural info
Who proposed the theory of multiple intelligences?
Howard Gardner: 1983