CLPS 0010 Readings - Chapter 6 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in CLPS 0010 Readings - Chapter 6 Deck (43):
1

What is learning?

A relatively enduring change in behavior, resulting from experience

2

What is conditioning?

A process in which environmental stimuli and behavioral responses become connected

3

What is classical conditioning?

Pavlovian: when you learn that two types of events go together

4

What is operant conditioning?

Instrumental: when you learn that a behavior leads ot a particular outcome

5

When did learning theory arise?

20th century

6

What is acquisition?

The gradual formation of an association between the CS and the US

7

What is extinction?

A process in which the CR is weakened when the CS is repeated without the US

8

How does contiguity increase the strength of conditioning?

When there is a brief delay between the CS and the US: anticipation

9

What does it mean when a CR is extinguished?

When the CS no longer predicts the US

10

What is spontaneous recovery?

A process in which a previously extinguished response reemerges after the presentation of the CS

11

What is stimulus generalization?

Learning that occurs when stimuli that are similar but not identical to the CS produce the CR

12

What is stimulus discrimination?

A differentiation between two similar stimuli when only one of them is consistently associated with the US

13

What is second-order conditioning?

When the CS doesn't become directly associated with an US, but rather with other stimuli associated with the US

14

What is the concept of biological preparedness?

The genetic programming of animals/humans to fear specific objects that are potentially dangerous

15

What is the cognitive perspective on learning?

When psychologists increase their consideration of mental processes such as prediction and expectancy on learning

16

What is the Rescorla-Wagner model?

A cognitive model of classical conditioning that states that the strength of the CS-US association is determined by the extent to which the US is unexpected or surprising

17

What is orienting response?

When an animal encounters a novel stimulus and pays more attention to it: an unexpected event in the environment causes the animal to pay more attention to try to understand why

18

What is the blocking effect?

Once a CS is learned, it can prevent the acquisition of a new CS

19

What is an occasion setter?

A stimulus associated with a CS that acts as a trigger for the CS; Ex: learning that almond smell predicts food IFF sound/light accompanies it: the sound/light is the occasion setter for the almond/food association

20

What is the law of effect, and how does it relate to operant conditioning?

Any behavior that leads to a satisfying state of affairs is likely to occur again; relates to reinforcement/punishment for increasing/decreasing desired behaviors in operant conditioning

21

What is the simplified difference between reinforcement/punishment?

Increases vs decreases desired behavior

22

What is shaping?

Reinforcing behaviors that are increasingly similar to the desired behavior

23

What is the Premack principle?

A more valued activity can be used to reinforce the performance of a less valued activity

24

Which is more effective, punishment or reinforcement?

Reinforcement, obviously, says Elliot.

25

What is a ratio schedule?

A schedule in which reinforcement is based on the number of times the behavior occurs

26

What is an interval schedule?

A schedule in which reinforcement is based on the number of times the behavior occurs

27

What is a fixed schedule?

A schedule in which reinforcement is provided after a specific number of occurrences or after a specific amount of time

28

What leads to greater responding, ratio or interval reinforcement?

Ratio reinforcement

29

What is a variable schedule?

A schedule in which reinforcement is provided at different rates or different times

30

What is the partial-reinforcement extinction effect?

The greater persistence of behavior under partial reinforcement than under continuous reinforcement

31

What is behavior modification?

The use of operant conditioning techniques to eliminate unwanted behaviors and replace them with desirable ones

32

What is latent learning?

Learning that takes place in the absence of reinforcement

33

What is insight learning?

When a solution emerges after a period of inaction or contemplation of a problem

34

What is a meme?

A unit of knowledge transmitted within a culture

35

What is observational learning?

The modification or acquisition of a behavior after exposure to at least one performance of that behavior

36

What did the researcher Bandura discover?

That exposing children to violence may encourage them to act aggressively

37

What are mirror neurons?

Neurons that are activated when one observes another individual engage in an action and when one performs the action that was observed

38

What is modeling?

The imitation of behavior through observational learning

39

What neurotransmitter serves as the neurochemical basis for positive reinforcement?

Dopamine

40

What is habituation?

A decrease in behavioral response after repeated exposure to a nonthreatening stimulus

41

What is sensitization?

An increase in behavioral response after exposure to a threatening stimulus

42

What is an LTP?

The strengthening of a synaptic connection, making the postsynaptic neurons more easily activated

43

What kind of receptor is needed for LTP?

NMDA, which is a glutamate receptor